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Establishment of Standard Procedures for Diagnosis of Plant Diseases Caused by Rhizoctonia spp.
立枯絲核菌( Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn )及絲核菌Rhizoctonia屬為一重要土壤傳播性植物病原真菌, 據估計其可侵害的植物有66科300種之多, 造成各種不同的病徵, 導致農業生產在品質與產量的嚴重損失.由於本病原菌對環境適應與殘存能力強, 因此防治較困難, 為有效達到防治之目的, 首先必須了解病株是否由立枯絲核菌或絲核菌所引起的, 過去以傳統方法由病組織分離常要花費較長時間, 本計畫將發展直接把病組織不經過表面消毒直接防治在鑑別培養基之方式, 以達快速鑑定目標.另一方面病原菌的分類很複雜.不同寄主上所分離之絲核菌, 在培養特性、病原性、生理生化及型態特徵上差異甚大, 因此目前絲核菌屬分類依據是以Parmeter等人在1969年, 根據菌株間是否有菌絲融合現象, 分為不同菌絲融合群( anastomosis group, AG ), 依此法目前全世界Rhizoctonia spp.菌絲融合群中, 多核菌絲融合群有14群, 包括AG-1、AG-2、AG-3、AG-4、AG-5、AG-6、AG-7、AG-8、AG-9、AG-10、AG-11、AG-BI, 其有性世代為Thanatephorus cucumeris, 和WAGO、WAGZ其有性世代為Waitea circinata.雙核菌絲融合群則分為21群, 包括AG-A、AG-B、AG-C、AG-D、AG-E、AG-F、AG-G、AG-H、AG-I、AG-J、AG-K、AG-L、AG-M、AG-N、AG-O、AG-P、AG-Q、AG-R、AG-S, 有性世代為Ceratobasidium spp., 及R.r.1、R.r.2( R.repens )有性世代為Tulasnella calospora.以往對於立枯絲核菌或絲核菌之鑑定及其菌絲融合群之確定常要花很多時間, 且對生手更是一件難事, 本計畫將研擬出一套簡易方式, 方便其鑑定, 對防疫及檢疫將有很大助益.另一方面把重要作物引起之各種病徵拍照, 以供比對鑑定.
Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn and genus RhizoctoniaDare very important soil borne plant pathogens.Approximately more than 300species in 66families of important crops are usually attacked and caused severe yield losses.These pathogens cause different types of symptoms which resulted in poor quality of the yield.Due to their highly adapted to various environmental conditions they have excellent saprophytic growth abilities and can strongly compete with other soil microorganisms.Therefore control of these pathogens is quite difficult.To reach the goal of control the causal organisms have to be definitely known whether or not it is caused by Rhizoctonia spp.In the past, traditional method of isolation method was performed.Diseased tissues were surface sterilized and placed on 2%water agar plate.It takes time to wait for mycelia to grow out and form specific pattern.In this project a differential medium will be used and the diseased tissues without surface sterilization will be placed on that medium.Within a short period of time diagnosis will be completed.In addition, the classification of Rhizoctonia spp.is very complicated.Their perfect stages are usually hardly able to induce.Rhizoctonia spp.isolated from different hosts have quite different culture and physiological characteristics, pathogenicity and morphology.Therefore the concept of anastomosis grouping of Rhizoctonia spp.proposed by Parmeter et.al., in 1969is still widely used.According to this concept Rhizoctonia spp.are divided in many anastomosis groups ( AG ).There are 14AG in multinucleate including AG-1, AG-2, AG-3, AG-4, AG-5, AG-6, AG-7, AG-8, AG-9, AG-10, AG-11and AG-BI, their perfect stage is Thanatephorus cucumeris, and WAGO and WAGZ belong to Waitea circinata.While binucleate has 21groups including AG-A, AG-B, AG-C, AG-D, AG-E, AG-F, AG-G, AG-H, AG-I, AG-J, AG-K, AG-L, AG-M, AG-N, AG-O, AG-P, AG-Q, AG-R and AG-S.They belong Ceratobasidium spp.In addition there are two groups of R.repens, R.r.1and R.r.2which belong Tulasnella calospora.Traditionally, identification of Rhizoctonia spp.and determination of their anastomosis groups have to spend a lot time.Its procedure is quite complicated and difficulty to a new hand.In this project a selective medium will be developed and applied to identify Rhizoctonia spp.within a very short period of time less than 24hr.Furthermore, seamless cellulose tubing or very thin agar film will be used to determine anastomosis group.Field survey will also perform regularly to examine the important crops infected with Rhizoctonia spp.Pictures of typical symptoms of the diseases will be taken for future reference or comparative identification.
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