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Development of Microbial Agents and Soil Amendment for Integrated Control of Crop Diseases
由Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lactucum引起的萵苣萎凋病，已成為台灣萵苣生產的重大病害問題。萵苣萎凋病會引起萵苣幼苗死亡與缺株，也會引起萵苣成株矮化與萎凋等現象。因此，它造成萵苣的產量損失，已成為農友關注的焦點問題。土壤添加物可以改變土壤物理與化學特性，也可以影響植株的生育與土媒病害的發生，故土壤添加物是防治土媒病害的重要方法之一。一種添加物是否有助於土媒病害的生物防治，須考量它對於土壤條件、肥力及微生物間交互作用的影響，因此本計畫的目的在於研發微生物製劑與土壤添加物綜合防治萵苣萎凋病，祈有助於推動有機農業的植物保護工作。由Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac)所引起之潰瘍病為世界性主要柑橘栽培產區最為重要之細菌性病害。台灣柑橘栽培上潰瘍病之危害已久，多年來因本病之為害所造成之經濟損失及化學防治所造成生產成本的增加與環境&
A new wilt disease of lettuce caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lactucum is severe in Taiwan. The disease is characterized by the death of same plants in the seedling stage. Older affected plants severly stunted and wilted. The yield loss of lettuce has been concerned by the farmers. Soil amendment may alter soil physical and chemical condition and it may have important consequences on growth of plants and occurrence of soilborne diseases. Whether an amendment works favorably or unfavorably in the establishment of a biological control system depends upon its influences on soil conditions, fertilization, and microbial interaction. Therefore, the purposes of the study are to develop the strategy of microbial agents and soil amendment for integrated control of lettuce fusarial wilt.Bacterial canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac)is the most important bacterial disease on citrus worldwide. The disease plagues citrus cultivation in Taiwan for long time, disease impact was often enormous when weather was conducive because effectiveness of available control measures was limited. The main objective of this investigation is to explore the use of antagonistic Bacillus subtilis (BS) in the control of citrus canker. In an ongoing project for the development of biopesticide for plant disease control, we noted that Bacillus subtilis group members isolated from nature are strongly antagonistic against great majority of phytopathogenic Xanthomonads. A field trial conducted also indicated the effectiveness of an attempted B. subtilis trial formulation in controlling bacterial spot of mango caused by X. axonopodis pv. mangiferae-indicae. In the proposed works, native BS strains available in the laboratory collection will be screened for the antagonisity against Xac. The superior strain selected will be then proceed for disease control efficacy test by greenhouse and field trials. For the uniformity of the disease incidence, the tested plants will be artificially inoculated with Xac by a multi-needle technique developed. The tested BS-formulation includes an endospore formulation produced by liquid fermentor and an amplified broth culture produced by a grower DIY open tank system. The ultimate goal is evaluate the application potential, to optimize the application technique and maximize the efficacy, and finally to resolve this long time plagued disease problem if possible
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