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The Breeding of Poinsettia (V)
聖誕紅為國際重要盆花, 本省年產已達120萬盆, 為第一盆花產業.目前已完成種苗性狀表, 並開始執行種苗專利制度, 為了未來發展聖誕紅盆花產業必需掌控種苗來源.目前世界主要育種國家僅美國、德國、法國、丹麥以及挪威等溫帶國家, 所育出的品種不一定適於本省栽培, 因此本計畫之目的擬瞭解並解決聖誕紅育種之瓶頸, 並進行雜交育種, 選出適應本省風土之品種及耐熱之聖誕紅品種, 其他育種性狀尚有苞片大、株型矮、分枝性良好、不落葉等優良性狀.本年度為第五年計畫, 從前人研究及前二年之結果了解溫度與菌質會影響結實率, 而菌質會促進實生苗之分枝性.另外二年來已選拔出優良性狀之雜交後代19株及種子1500粒.因此今年擬繼續選拔優良實生苗, 同時將選出植株正反嫁接於商業品種, 以便將菌質感染到選出的實生苗, 促進其分枝性及改進苞片大小.嫁接苗選拔後, 以扦插法大量繁殖扦插苗, 並進行品種最後之評估.預計在本年度計畫結束後能選出耐高溫、早著色、矮化、大苞片、耐貯運之優良品種.
Pot poinsettia is the importantly international pot flower.In Taiwan, the production was over 1, 200thousands pots per year, and became the first business of pot flowers.The patent of poinsettia begun to be registered.For the development of pot poinsettia industry.The source of plants should be under control.At present poinsettia was bred in the temperate country, such as United States, Germany, France, Danmark and Norway.Their cultivars were not cultured easily in Taiwan.The purpose of this project is to understand and resolved the key point of crossing poinsettia.Furthermore, through hybrid breeding, the cultivars that can grow in hot weather of Taiwan and have good characteristics ad a pot flower, such as large bracts, dwarf plant, fee branching and less dropped leaf etc.This year is the 5th year of this project.From the result before, pollination temperature and phytoplasma affect fruit sets, also phytoplasma affects branching.From previous work, 19good seedlings were selected and 1, 500seeds had been harvested.Therefore, the selection will be continued.By grafting, phytoplasma will be infected from commercial cultivars to selected seedlings to enhance branching of seedlings and increasing the size of bracts.In the following, the last evaluation of breeding will be conducted in this year.And at the end of this year a few good new cultivars with characteristics of high temperature tolerance, early coloring, dwarf, large bracts and tolerance of storage will be selected.
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