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The Development on Automatic Production System for Short-Term Leafy Vegetables
葉菜類的生產是台灣蔬菜產業中重要的一環.雖然葉菜類具有生育期短, 每年栽培次數可達8-12作之優點; 但對風吹、日曬、雨淋等環境因子影響十分敏感, 勞力支出佔生產成本之67%, 明顯過高; 同時還有農藥、肥料殘留污染等問題.過去20年來, 水耕蔬菜固然在縮短作物生育日數及提高單位面積產量上改進許多.但是生產者仍遭遇養液管理困難、根部容易缺氧、以及勞力成本( 約佔50-72% )仍然偏高等問題.因此面積逐漸萎縮.反觀近年有機介質栽培蔬菜之面積逐年快速增加, 目前已超越水耕面積.主要是因有機介質栽培管理容易, 且無連作障礙問題.以薄層有機介質栽培小白菜初步試驗, 結果證實, 每期作從播種到收穫只需18天, 且介質可回收處理再利用, 成本更低.因此, 本計畫擬針對台灣現有葉菜類生產上所面臨的問題, 一方面依正確管理模式開發有機介質無土栽培技術應用在葉菜生產上, 期能根據葉菜作物需求及環境特性提供最佳養分與水份供應技術, 除縮短產期, 提高產量外, 更生產清潔健康蔬菜; 另一方面則藉機械化活動植床之研究開發, 使葉菜生產自動化、工廠化.
Leafy vegetable production takes very important portion in whole vegetable industry.Although the leafy vegetable had the advantage of short growing period which has 8-12production turns in a year, it is very fragile to negative environment factors, e.g.wind, sun, and rain.The labor cost for leafy vegetable production, is about 67%of total cost, is still relatively high.The residual of chemicals is the other serious problem.In past 20years, horticulture is adopted to shorten the growing period and increase the yield per unit area.The horticulture still faces the problems of nutrition management, insufficient oxygen, and high labor cost, etc.Considering the problems of leafy vegetable production, recently the technique of soilless culture has been widely accepted.The production area of soilless culture has already over horticulture.The advantages of soilless culture are easy to manage and continuously to grow one kind of vegetable.An experiment had been conducted to grow Pakchoi with a thin layer of substrate of 2cm.The experimental results show the growing period to be shortened for 18days.The substrate after appropriate treatment can be reused, which can further reduce the production cost.This project will focus on local leafy vegetable production problems, develop a fully automatic soilless culture system to grow leafy vegetable.The developed system is not only to operate automatic, but also to manage the growing environment and optimize the nutrition supplement.The developed system can further shorten the growing period and increase the yield, and produce clean and healthy vegetable.The developed system, which adopts the moving bed, will become fully automatic.
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