Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5517
標題: 南投縣粒狀污染物管制策略之研究
The study of the particulate matters control strategies in Nantou County
作者: 林雅智
Lin, Ya-Chih
關鍵字: particulate matters;粒狀污染物;emission estimation;air pollution fees;排放量推估;空污費
出版社: 環境工程學系
摘要: 
南投縣砂石含量豐富,砂石業者林立,平時即為政府各項重大公共工程的主要砂石供應者之一,然而也因懸浮微粒的大量逸散,造成相當程度的空氣污染;加以水利局為整治相關河道,已進行若干河川土石開採疏濬工程,屆時如此龐大的粒狀物污染源,加上原有的砂石場所產生之揚塵,如無有效之管制策略,勢必對於當地之空氣品質造成更嚴重之衝擊。
南投縣環保局每年對砂石場的稽查成本投入一千多萬元,然而現階段卻尚未對砂石場開徵空污費;自南投縣政府2002/09/26公告指定南投縣境內之「河川疏濬工程」為營建空污費中之「其他類工程類別」以來,僅徵收了13,003元(即按工程合約總金費徵收千分之三),全然無法支援相關行政成本,龐大的粒狀污染物排放量與實際徵收之空污費儼然不成比例。就法規面而言,為了落實污染者付費的精神以及公平性的原則,有必要針對砂石業者研擬適用之收費費率與收費制度。
為了反應南投縣境內砂石場TSP粒狀物排放之實際情形,且與現有環保署之資料取得一致性,本研究中砂石場TSP粒狀物排放量之推估乃沿用環保署EPA97資料庫中之砂石場TSP粒狀物排放量資料。本研究亦於南投縣之疏濬工程運輸動線進行TSP粒狀物檢測分析以瞭解當地砂石車行經路線之空氣污染程度;此外並利用台16線(鋪面道路)及運輸便道(未鋪面道路)之檢測值發展適用國內之鋪面及未鋪面道路之TSP逸散排放係數推估公式。最後研擬砂石業收費制度,冀以經濟誘因達到粒狀污染物管制效果。
研究結果顯示,集集鎮一帶的砂石場TSP排放量最高,水里鄉次之;而疏濬工程運輸動線上之粒狀物逸散排放量更為可觀,皆有必要加強污染防制之相關配套措施。檢測結果亦顯示運輸便道之TSP逸散排放係數約為台16線之5倍。在TSP排放收費費率及收費制度方面,本研究針對砂石場分別依「TSP排放量」、「場區面積」、「砂石產量」、「場區面積及砂石產量加權計算」為課徵基準,研擬四套不同收費方案,並分別探討其優缺點。而疏濬工程運輸動線方面,則建議將鋪面道路與未鋪面道路分別依據0.02(元/km-m3砂石)以及0.1(元/km-m3砂石)之費率進行課費。最後本研究研擬砂石場及疏濬工程空污費收費流程,以將收費制度具體化,提供未來推動砂石場及疏濬工程空污費徵收之參考。

Nantou County is one of the major gravel supply sources in Taiwan, therefore there are many gravel plants operated and result in a large amount of suspended particulates emissions. Furthermore, the Water Resources Agency also executes several projects to dredge the rivers and remove the gravels and sands from the channels. Hence more particulate matters are produced and cause the air quality become worse.
In order to regulate the air pollution problems caused by the activities of the gravel mining, the Environmental Protection Bureau (EPB) of Nantou County needs to spend more than 10 million NT dollars every year to supervise the gravel plants and the river dredging projects. However, the authorities have not yet levy air pollution fees on gravel plants and the amount of air pollution fees the river dredging projects need to pay is also very little (only about 13,003 NT dollars per year). It is absolutely unable to support the relevant administrative costs that EPB spends. Consequencely, the main goal of this research is to establish reasonable regulations, including the rates and procedures of levying air pollution fees on gravel plants and river dredging projects, to reflect the “polluter pays” spirit. Hopefully, such new regulation may activate the polluters' incitements to control and reduce their particulate matters emissions.
In this research, the emissions of total suspended particulates (TSP) of gravel plants, paved roads and unpaved roads were estimated by EPA97 database and real sampling data. The emission factors and air pollution fee charging rates were then analyzed and calculated. The results indicate that Jiji Town suffers the largest amount of TSP emission, followed by Shueili. The TSP emissions generated from the roads mostly used by the trucks to transport gravels are even more. The TSP emission factor of unpaved roads is found to be 5 times of paved ones. And the suggested charging rates of air pollution fees of paved and unpaved roads are 0.02 and 0.1 NT dollar per unit volume gravel (1 m3) transported unit distance (1 km), respectively. The operation procedure and four alternative charging rates which may be used as the regulation to levy air pollution fee on gravel plants were also established and investigated.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5517
Appears in Collections:環境工程學系所

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