Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5530
標題: 焚化過程中氯化氫及含氯有機污染物之探討
作者: 巫慧瑜
關鍵字: 焚化;氯化氫;有機氯化物;無機氯化物;添加劑
出版社: 環境工程學系
摘要: 
焚化處理技術已成為台灣地區廢棄物主要處理方式,由於國內廢棄物含大量水分及塑膠和廚餘,此類含氯物質在高溫焚化環境中,解離之氯離子會與氫或金屬物種等反應生成氯化氫或金屬氯化合物,甚至藉由微粒上之金屬催化而形成戴奧辛之前驅物(氯苯、氯酚),進而破壞環境生態。傳統去除氯化氫或含氯有機物上,應用較廣泛為乾式、半乾式及濕式洗滌塔搭配活性碳等固體吸附劑加以去除,另外亦有一技術為於焚化過程中添加固體添加劑去除氯化氫及含氯有機物。
本研究為使用不同添加劑搭配流體化床之優點來控制氯化氫及含氯有機物之生成,利用進料中添加不同添加劑(物)於不同含氯物質(有機氯與無機氯)中,探討添加劑對不同含氯物質產生之污染物的影響及控制效果,並與熱力平衡模式模擬結果作比較,了解其實驗與模式間之差異,期盼得到更真實之模擬數據,以利往後之分析及比較之用。
不同含氯物質(有機氯與無機氯)對污染物生成之影響,結果顯示焚化過程氯化氫形成之潛勢,與不同含氯成分解離釋放氯之能力有關,其中有機氯形成氯化氫之潛勢較無機氯大。焚化操作溫度對添加劑之影響上,可發現溫度增加有減低添加劑之控制效果的趨勢,因其隨焚化溫度升高HCl與Cl2之排放率均會增加。然而在添加劑對HCl與Cl2之影響及控制效果中,添加鈣基添加劑(Ca(OH)2、CaO、CaCO3)對HCl與Cl2之控制效果遠較鎂基添加劑(Mg(OH)2)要好,其中鈣基添加劑對HCl及Cl2之控制效果又以添加CaO為最好。且添加劑對有機物(PAHs)、有機氯化物(氯苯、氯酚)及戴奧辛之控制效果中,可發現不論是進料為有機氯或無機氯,添加劑可有效抑制氯苯之生成,但對有機物及氯酚之控制效果則不顯著,甚至有時反而有增加之趨勢;戴奧辛之控制效果亦僅於有機氯時有明顯之趨勢。另外,添加銅化合物亦發現不管於有機氯或無機氯進料時均不會對氯苯產生催化作用,僅氯酚會受銅之催化而產生較多之排放濃度,但有些亦會產生抑制作用,而使其排放濃度降低。

This study employs a laboratory-scale fluidized bed incinerator to investigate the control of hydrogen chloride (HCl) and organic chlorides during waste incineration by adding different additives in the feedstock which contains organic and inorganic chlorides, respectively. The control efficiency of different additives and the effects of different types of chlorides are studied and compared by experiments and thermodynamic equilibrium modeling.
The influences of organic and inorganic chlorides on the formation of air pollutants show that the formation of HCl is related to the potential of chlorine released from different chlorides. Organic chloride PVC is more potential to form HCl than inorganic chloride NaCl. The performances of additives are affected by incineration temperature. Increasing operating temperature decreases the control efficiency of additives, because the emission rates of HCl and Cl2 are increased with temperature. Comparing the control efficiency of HCl and Cl2 by different additives finds that calcium base additives (Ca(OH)2, CaO, CaCO3) have better performances than magnesium base additive (Mg(OH)2). CaO is found to be the best additive to control HCl and Cl2. The control efficiencies of different organic compounds, such as PAHs, chlorobenzenes, chlorophenols, and dioxins, by the additives are also investigated. Experimental results indicate that the additives can effectively suppress the formations of the chlorobenzenes, but the control efficiencies of PAHs and chlorophenols are not apparent. The control efficiency of dioxins is obvious only in the case of organic chloride. In addition, adding copper compounds in the feedstock can catalyze the formation of chlorophenols in some cases, but does not for the chlorophenols.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5530
Appears in Collections:環境工程學系所

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