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標題: A Study of Social Networks and Firm Innovation in the Institutional Contexts of Emerging Market
作者: 尤隨樺
關鍵字: 新興市場;管理科學;制度特性;網絡組成;網絡結構;創新能力;應用研究
In recent years, a growing body of work in the management literature states that the institution plays an important role in affecting firms’ perceptions and decisions. Particularly in the emerging markets, firms’ success often depends on whether they adapt their strategies to the institutional environments. (e.g., North, 1990; North, 2005; Peng, Wang, and Jiang, 2008; Dunning and Lundan, 2008)。According to Lin (2001), institutions define what is socially or legally appropriate in a society and thus create incentives and constraints for actors to make strategic choices. Therefore, when organizations are embedded in different institutional field, they will have different perceptions, sharing and behavior, which further affect their decisions. However, the impact of institutional characteristics has rarely been examined in extant literature (Williamson, 2000).On the other hand, social networking and ties are quite prevalent in the emerging economies. Several case studies indicate that inter-organizational network is the key to achieving competitive advantages in these markets (Schmitz, 2004). From strategic linkage theory, building social ties with other firms, institutions or governments enable firms to access strategic resources, gain scale economies and scope economies, increase their operating efficiency, and further increase their competitiveness (Chen and Chen, 1998; Li, Qian, Lam and Wang, 2000). However, some other studies have different perspectives. They argue that building or maintaining social networks is not costless. Networking is actually an adaptation process (Chen and Chen, 1998). To bring about a better match between the firms in the network, firms will need to spend much effort in information gathering, organizational learning and adaptation until a new position for resource exchange is secured. Linkage costs thus are incurred (Chen, Chen and Ku, 2004). Several recent studies also indicate that collaborations cannot guarantee effective transfer of knowledge and resource (Kaplan, et al. 2010; Phelps, 2010).Given above, a better understanding of different types of social networks, the mechanisms through which social networks can provide performance enhancements, and the benefits of social networks in the emerging markets is required. Therefore, this study plans to explore in more depth how institutional characteristics affect the structure and composition of social networks in the emerging market and further examine how social networks affect firm innovation. The related research topics and directions are summarized as follows:(1) This study will compare the institutional contexts of emerging markets and those of developed markets and further examine how the institutional characteristics affect the structure and composition of organizational networks.(2) This study will examine how the structure and composition of inter-organizational networks affect firm innovation in the emerging market.(3) This study will examine the performance impacts of internal social networks and external social networks respectively and further analyze the relative importance of these social networks in improving firm innovation in the emerging market.(4) This study will examine how the relationship between social networks and firm innovation is moderated by product market competition in the emerging market.

在新興市場之制度特性下探討廠商之社會網絡及其與創新能力之關聯性近年來,愈來愈多研究強調探討制度環境的重要性,特別是在新興市場的分析上,許多學者認為制度特性不僅影響廠商的行為,也影響經營績效 (例如:North, 1990; North, 2005; Peng, Wang, and Jiang, 2008; Dunning and Lundan, 2008)。依據Lin (2001),處於不同制度範疇的組織,由於社會制度所要求的限制與動機不同,因此為服從於這些限制與動機,行動者(包括個體與組織)會產生不同的認知、分享與行為,繼而影響其決策與表現,是故分析商業組織之經營與決策,不能不考慮其所處制度環境之特性所產生的影響,但目前在研究上卻較少被探討(Williamson, 2000)。另一方面,有許多個案研究發現:新興市場廠商績效的提升最重要的關鍵來自於廠商之間所建立之不同的網絡連結(Schmitz, 2004)。依據策略連結理論,廠商可透過與其他公司、組織或政府機構的連結獲取所需的策略性資源,達成規模經濟與範疇經濟、增進營運效率,並減少市場波動所產生的傷害,增進廠商在新興市場的競爭力(Chen and Chen, 1998; Li, Qian, Lam and Wang, 2000);但亦有理論指出,社會關係的建立是一個漸進調整的過程(Chen and Chen, 1998),在互動的過程中,廠商需要致力於資訊蒐集、學習與調適,以確保彼此間的資源交換能達到最佳狀態,故有網絡連結成本的產生(Chen, Chen and Ku, 2004),近期研究也發現:合作關係的建立並不一定能確保知識或資源的有效移轉與共享(Kaplan, et al. 2010; Phelps, 2010)。前述各項論點與結果顯示:迄今吾人對於在新興市場的制度環境下,不同類型的社會網絡所帶來的成本效益、促使社會網絡產生效益的機制,以及應投資哪些類型的網絡結構方能強化企業在投資當地的優勢等問題之瞭解仍然十分有限。因此,本研究計畫擬延續此一研究脈絡,以創新績效為主要分析構面,深入探討以下各項研究問題,期能裨益廠商在新興市場之社會資本投資與社會網絡之相關管理決策。(1) 新興市場具有哪些與已開發市場不同的制度特性?這些制度特性如何影響廠商對於社會網絡之選擇?(2) 社會網絡之結構與組成如何影響新興市場廠商之創新能力?(3) 內部社會網絡與外部社會網絡對於創新能力之影響有何差異?(4) 產品市場競爭如何影響廠商之社會網絡與創新能力之關係?
其他識別: NSC100-2628-H005-016
Appears in Collections:會計學系所

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