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Studying the Characteristics and Affecting Factors of Sulfate、Nitrate、Acidic and Basic Gases during the Ozone Episodes
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中部地區臭氧問題日趨嚴重，光化反應所衍生之二次氣膠對於人體會造成呼吸系統的危害性，二次氣膠大多以細微粒形式存在於大氣中，然過去鮮少研究針對臭氧事件期間氣膠微粒與酸鹼性氣體在日夜間不同時段特性以及PM2.5中二次氣膠貢獻程度進行探討，因此本研究使用環形擴散採樣器於台中市中興大學進行大氣PM2.5微粒及酸鹼性氣體之採集，採樣時間為2005年至2007年，主要目的是探討台中地區臭氧事件日(O3-MAX > 100 ppb)與非臭氧事件日(O3-MAX < 60 ppb)大氣組成特性及其影響因子並量化臭氧事件二次氣膠貢獻程度。
以離子質量重組方式推估二次氣膠濃度，結果顯示非事件日二次氣膠約佔PM2.5濃度18-24%，事件日二次氣膠比例則上升至37-41%，其中事件日硫酸銨濃度佔二次氣膠57 %，硝酸銨濃度佔38 %。觀察2007年5月臭氧案例主要因高壓迴流、高壓出海及低壓北移之影響，配合正午時段區域性海風作用，形成擴散不良之天氣型態，其中以SO42-為主要污染物。另外，利用多元線性迴歸建立高臭氧日間PM2.5濃度經驗公式如下：
Ozone is a significant air pollution problem in central Taiwan. Those secondary aerosols derived via photochemical reactions were hazardous to human health. Mostly, Secondary aerosols were in fine particle size range. In the past, only a few studies addressed the contribution of secondary aerosols to the fine particles, and the characteristics of aerosol particles、acidic gases and basic gases. Therefore, this study intended to use an annular denuder sampling system to measure the ambient PM2.5 and the acidic and basic gaseous pollutants at National Chung Hsing University in Taichung during the period from 2005 to 2007. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical compositions of the ambient particulates and to estimate the fraction of secondary aerosol during the ozone episodes (O3-MAX > 100 ppb) and non- ozone episodes (O3-MAX < 60 ppb) in Taichung area.
Experimental results showed that the weather conditions during the ozone episodes were higher temperature、lower wind velocity, and lower relative humidity (RH). More pollutants (PM2.5、SO42-、NO3-、NH4+) were generated by photochemical reactions in daytime, so that the concentrations of secondary aerosols were higher. Similarly, the pollutants were influenced by higher relative humidity in nighttime, the concentration of
(NH4)2SO4 was increased. On the contrary, only the concentration of NO3- was higher from 10:00 to 14:00 am during the non-ozone episodes. These results showed the concentration of HNO3 was increased because of NH4NO3 evaporated easily in the ozone episode, and the concentrations of SO2 and HNO2 during the nighttime before ozone episodes were higher than non-ozone episodes. The photolysis of HNO2 in daytime generated more OH free radicals enhanced photochemical reactions and caused more ozone accumulation. The concentration of NH3 was reduced because of NH3 combined with HNO3 and H2SO4 easily in the ozone episode.
This study also estimated the concentration of secondary aerosols during the ozone episodes and non-ozone episodes. The results showed that there are 18-24% and 37-41% secondary aerosols of PM2.5 during non-ozone episodes and ozone episodes, respectively. And there were 57% and 38% of the secondary aerosols were in the form of (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3, respectively. In addition, the case of May 2007 was influenced by the weather conditions of high pressure systems and low pressure systems and regional sea land wind during midday. Especially, SO42- was major pollutant of this case. Model for PM2.5 concentration of ozone episodes daytime obtained using multiple linear regression analysis is:
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