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Strategies in Reducing Consumers$ Perceived Risk: Two Channels, Eight Product Categories, Ten Perceived Risks, and Twenty-Five Risk Relievers
雖然台灣的上網人口仍在持續增加，但上網購物的人數不到所有上網人口的六成，相較於超市、量販店、便利商店等通路有90%～97%的使用率，顯示網路購物仍有進步的空間。許多人不願意上網購物可能是因為消費者所感受到的知覺風險程度較高，且已有許多研究證實此一論點。但是，相關研究並沒有直接證實，在實體及網路商店中，購買同一件產品的知覺風險是否有所差異？若能回答此一問題，則有助於零售業者決定，哪些產品應在網路上銷售，而哪些產品則應在實體零售店面銷售。此外，雖然許多研究已指出知覺風險對網路購物發展的負面影響，但很少研究提出應如何降低網路消費者的知覺風險。有些研究使用「風險緩解策略」（risk relief strategy）（例如退款保證、品牌忠誠、品牌形象等）來降低消費者在購物時所可能面臨的知覺風險。但相關研究仍以傳統消費者行為居多。由於知覺風險是產品類別特定的風險（product-class specific construct），但是過去許多研究忽略了此點，並未將產品類別的特性納入，因此研究結果的貢獻較為有限。基於此點，本計畫主要的重點，即是在探討消費者在網路上與實體零售店面中，購買不同種類的產品時，其所感受到的風險有何差異？同時亦探討各種知覺風險適用於哪些風險緩解策略？具體而言，本計畫將分四年執行，分別針對消費者在實體與網路零售店面購買搜尋型（第一年）、經驗1 型（第二年）、經驗2 型（第三年）、及信任型（第四年）產品及服務類型時，其所感受到之十種知覺風險（績效、財務、機會／時間、安全、社會、心理、來源、運送、隱私、及付款）程度是否有所差異？同時亦將探討常見的二十五種風險緩解策略中，哪些策略可有效地降低何種知覺風險。
Despite the rapid growth of Internet population in Taiwan, the percentage of Internetshoppers is less than 60%, which is a very low ratio compared with the usage rate of90%~97% of supermarkets, hypermarkets or convenient stores. One of the possible reason tocause people unwilling to shop online might be the high level of perceived risk. A lot ofstudies have demonstrated that people perceive higher risks when they shop on the Internetthan when they shop in stores. However, there lacks direct evidence regarding that willconsumers perceive different levels of risk when they are going to purchase the sameproduct from two different channels (physical retailing and online retailing stores). Theanswer to this question can contribute to the retailing industry in deciding a betterdistribution strategy.Researchs about how to reduce the consumers' perceived risk are still limited, althoughthe negative influence of risk on consumers' shopping intention onthe Internet has beendemonstrated by a variety of studies. Risk relief strategy was identified and examined toreduce consumers'perceived risk, but mainly in trational retailing environment. It is unclearwhat kind of risk relievers are effective in reducing online consumers'perceived risks. Inaddition, perceived risk has been suggested to be a product-class specific construct.Unfortunately, a lot of literature has ignored this issue. Thus, the objective of current projectis to investigate the consumers'perceived risks when they were purchasing different typesof products from different channels. In addition, possible risk relievers will also beexamined.Specifically, this will be a four-year project, in which the consumers'perception of tentypes of risks (performance, financial, time, safty, social, psychological, source, delivery,privacy and payment) in two types of channels (physical and online retailing stores) whenthey are purchasing searching (1st year), experience 1 (2nd year), experience 2 (3rd year)and credence (4th year) products and services. Further, the effectiveness of tenty-five riskrelievers will also be examined.
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