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標題: 多樣性產品間需求移轉之研究
A Study on the Demand Switching for Multiple Products
作者: 謝??君
關鍵字: 應用研究;Demand Switching;管理科學;需求移轉;風險共擔;庫存管理;Risk Pooling;Inventory Management
企業藉由需求移轉(Demand Switching)之方法來降低庫存成本並增加獲利已行之有年,此方法亦經不少相關研究文獻加以佐證。所謂的需求移轉乃是利用風險共擔(Risk-Pooling)之特性來有效降低安全庫存,進而降低其成本,假設企業經由適當之行銷手法,能夠將顧客對於需求變異較大產品之需求,轉移成對於另一需求變異較小產品之需求,其便可藉由風險共擔來取得成本效益。雖此方法理論基礎日趨完整,然而鮮少研究探討多樣性產品間需求移轉之最佳方式以及需求移轉之最佳分配比例。在本計畫中,我們探討在多樣性產品架構下,進行需求移轉之可能方式並比較分析其優劣。我們主要考慮下列兩種產品需求移轉模式:合併需求法(Merge-Switching)與分散需求法(Burst-Switching)。初步研究結果顯示,於特定條件下兩種模式中之利潤皆會隨著需求移轉比例增加而增加,此外,在兩種模式中皆存有最佳需求分配比例使得利潤最大化。因此使用者可藉由本研究推導之量化架構來評估在多樣產品中,最適當之需求移轉方式及移轉分配量,我們同時亦將透過數值分析與模擬來驗證我們的量化模型。

Inventory management and related decision-makings have been critical when running a business; the variability of products' demand frequently attracts managers' attention because of its costly implications. By carrying high level of inventory, firms may satisfy customers' orders and materialize high revenue when demand is high, but often end up with excess inventory when demand is low. On the other hand, carrying low level of inventory to avoid the cost of excess inventory may result in a poor service level and loss of potential profit.It is already demonstrated that demand switching can be used by firms to take advantage of the risk pooling effect and meet the service requirement with less inventory and yield more profit. That is, a firm can improve its profitability by encouraging some of its customers, who intended to purchase one product to switch to buy other products with less variability in demand. This study confirms that demand switching may reduce the sum of demand variability and consequently increases the total profit. Even though this approach of demand switching is well developed, it is rarely found in the literature specifically regarding how the demand should be switched among products, and if there exists an optimum switching ratio when switching demand among multiple products.To answer the above questions, in this study we examine the problem where multiple products are available to customers. We intend to study the possible demand switching patterns analytically. Two cases of demand switching are considered: Merge-Switching and Burst-Switching. Our preliminary results showed that the profit increases with increasing switching ratio and is concave in the case of Merge-Switching, when there is no correlation among the demand of products. In addition, in the case of Burst-Switching, the profit increases with increasing switching ratio and is concave, regardless of the correlation among the demand of products. The assignment (or distribution) of the switched demand does affect the profit in both cases; under certain circumstances, there exists a maximum value of the profit in the case of Merge-Switching. We expect similar results in the case of Burst-Switching. The developed analytical framework shall facilitate practitioners in the inventory related decision-making process. Numerical examples are also included to verify the derived models.
其他識別: NSC98-2410-H005-006
Appears in Collections:科技管理研究所

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