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Improvement on Breeding and Cultivation Techniques of Legumes, Teas and New Crops (II)
|關鍵字:||Yield Trial;農藝;Vegetable Soybean;Variety;Variation)綠肥;Sustainable Cultivation;Sown Times;Processing Characteristics;Pod-shattering Trait;Pigeon Pea;變異;樹豆;播種期;農藝性狀;落花生;裂莢性;野生大豆;莢飽滿度;產量試驗;品種;育種;每莢粒數;多年生花生;永續經營;加工特性;毛豆;大豆;應用研究||摘要:||
Part 1. Several workers haved produced triploid hybrids which had a low percentage of seed set resulting from unreduced gametes, and suggested that triploid can be used in Arachis interspecific breeding for increased recombination between chromosomes and quick recovery of A. hypogaea like tetraploid line. In this study, six interspecfic hybrids be used to investigate the fertility characteristics and the technique of podding enhancement. Hybrids will be planted at either greenhouse and field condition in spring and autumn season, and treated with shortday, pruning and PGR. The results can be used in peanut breeding program. Part 2. The geographical nature and weather of Taiwan pattern very considerably with location. Spring and fall crops are grown each year in Taiwan. Physical character and chemical characteristics of peanut kernel as affected by different cultivars and maturity. A gerneral consumer concept indicating that the roasted peanut flavor of the kernels of the former is inferior to the latter deserves further investigation. To study the potental of raw peanut kernels and peanut pod to generated aunique peanutty flavor during roasting is one of the most important. This program is to study the variation of physical character and chemical composition characteristcs grown in diferent sown date of different cultivars and to established the high quality processing production. Part 3. The perennial peanut, "Amarillo, one of legumes for improving soil in Australia, have been studied five years in Agriculture Experiment Station in National Taiwan University. the result have shown that the perennial peanut have a great potential as a green manure and as a cover crop in landscape in Taiwan. It is very important to establish a adaptable cutivation under different enviroment condition with weed control and nutrient management in near future. The objec of this study was coducted to establish weed control and nutrient application. Part 4. Ten psecies, comprisingfive local-bred species and five cultivated species. We will collect pods in the R6 growing stage and investigate the thickness of pod shell and seed coat, the density of shell tissue, the verdancy, the pod size, the number of pod, and the percentage of pod breach. The genetic correlation and phenotypic correlation among these characteristics will be calculated. These data will be saved for future reference in breeding to improve the quality of edible soybean pod. Part 5. Twelve crosses will be made to incorporate large seed size, bright green color, early maturity and sweet taste from Japanese cultivars to locally adapted breedmmer and autumn. Part 6. In Taiwan, except several original species, there were no popular cultivars of pigon pea. Among the species cultured by the aborigines in Taiwan, the characters of color, size and growth stages were different. In order to select better lines as popular cultivars and proceed the genetic and breeding studies, the different lines of pigon pea in Taiwan are collected and study the agriculture characters of them. Part 7. This soybean breeding program is develop soybean that rich in biomass and plant tissue component for green manure. The hybrid crosses between the cultivated black soybean and wild soybean were made and F1 seed were obtains. Bluk method were used to handle the segregation generations of hybrid cross. Segration generations were selected in high generations on basis of fresh weight, dry weight, and total N, P205, K20 content.
計畫1. 挾戊B理能獲大幅改進,本研究擬以栽培種花生與野生種A. cardenasii、A. correntina、A. spegaziinii及A. vi質的有效途徑.計畫2.落花生不同物理及化學組成分,受到不同品種、栽培環境及生長季節之影響,以往台灣落花生之栽培均以春秋做為主,為因應加入世界貿易組織對落花生產業之衝擊及加工利用,本計畫擬探討不同品種不同播種期花生仁加工特性之差異,開發研製高品質之產品,提高其利用價值.計畫3. 1993年在台大農場試種並作農藝性壯及生長勢調查在台大農埸經多年試種 ;結果發現很適合台北地區種植,發展潛力極大.本場多年栽培經驗,Amarillo適應力強;是優良多年生豆科牧草青飼料作物;匍匐性強亦為理想的地被植物,為美化環境的好材料.其屬豆科植物,因此具有改良土壤肥力能力,為一極佳的綠肥作物.由此觀之;推廣種植Amarillo一舉可達到生產,生活與生態的多功能目標.多年生花生Amarillo在台灣是值得繼續投入開發研究之多年生豆科植物並可推廣至全台灣,當作地被植物、綠肥植物、豆科牧草及美化環境.唯有關之栽培技術尚待建立,有鑑於此本計畫乃針對該作物的雜草與肥料管理進行試驗,供將來推廣的重要依據.計畫4.為改進毛豆果莢品質,本實驗使用四個品種,(包括在台灣育成之毛豆品種五個及其他品種五個)在植株生長至R6期採取果莢,調查夾殼厚、種皮厚、夾殼組織強度、青翠色澤、果莢大小、籽粒數、及裂莢率等性狀之品種間特性,並計算性狀間遺傳表現型相關,以作為將來育種之參考.計畫5.本年度以高產、大莢但晚熟的雜交後裔和早熟、品質及風味佳的日本引進品,九大族所有的部落均有種植.今年政府因應加入WTO對農業的衝擊,農林廳實施「少量多樣化措施」,樹豆被列為雜糧作物之首.但是樹豆在臺灣的研究很少,品種改良工作也不曾做過,除了原有的在來品種之外,沒有推廣的品種.而原住民栽培的品種中,顏色、大小、成熟期等均有所不同,因此本試驗就收集自臺灣各地區的樹豆不同系統,先進行農藝性狀的調整,以篩選優良的系統,做為推廣品種之用,並進而進行樹豆之遺傳、育種研究.計畫7本計畫擬進行下列之各項試驗:孕謗�@綠肥及適合一二期水稻田休耕之綠肥種植.
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