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標題: 全球地貌阻抗歷史資料庫之建立
Global Historical Canopy Resistance Data Set for Climate Simulation
作者: 郭美君
Kuo, Mei-Chun
關鍵字: canopy resistance;地貌阻抗;climate simulation;aerodynamic resistance;heat flux;氣候模擬;氣動阻尼;熱通量
出版社: 環境工程學系
陸地上的植被為造成各地氣候變化的重要元素之一,且對於近地表的大氣交互作用也有顯著的影響。故全球氣候模式(GCMs)對於氣候模擬及天氣預報,需要真實的地表描述作為參數。地貌阻尼(Canopy Resistance)為大氣邊界層的參數,也是氣候規則變化的重要機制。地貌的差異性及許多參數的變異,使得地貌阻尼的推估充滿不確定性。例如葉面積指數、根的深度、土壤溼度、反照率、粗糙度等;而且這些參數的關聯性將隨著植被及土壤型態而改變。此外人類的活動,例如澆水、土地利用的改變等,也使得這些問題更加複雜。
本研究利用一般氣象資料,配合太陽及大氣輻射等資料,建立全球地貌阻尼歷史資料庫,提供氣候模擬所需之地表參數。模擬結果顯示地貌阻尼有隨季節更迭之特性,且與降雨量及葉面積指數有關。地貌阻尼在沙漠地區相當大,約在500 s/m以上,雨林及溫帶沿海的都市約在50 ~100 s/m之間。此外亞馬遜流域之地貌阻尼還有逐年增加之趨勢。

The continental surfaces, including vegetation cover, represent an important component of the Earth's climate system. From the point of view of atmospheric sciences, the land surface and biosphere interact with the lower atmosphere, and they have a significant impact on near-surface meteorological and climatological phenomena. Atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) for climate simulations or numerical weather prediction require a realistic description of land surface processes. The degree of complexity needed for these land surface schemes is not yet completely determined. Numerous numerical experiments have been conducted with GCMs, revealing a sensitivity of the simulated climate to various land surface characteristics. For instance, different components of the global water cycle were found to be sensitive to the available soil moisture or the water-holding capacity of land as well as to land surface albedo or roughness.
A new method is derived to calculate the canopy resistance requiring only normal meteorological data plus solar radiation and atmospheric radiation data. We estimated data set for past of tens years and provide models for surface parameters. The results of simulation showed that characteristic of changes seasonally of canopy resistance, and had relationship with precipitation and leaf area index. Canopy resistance was more than 500 s/m at desert areas, and was during 50 ~ 100 s/m at rainforest and urban area situated along coast with the temperate zone.
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