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Activated carbon (AC), the materials with specific porous structure and oxygen surface groups, has been used in heterogeneous catalysis for a long time, because it can act as direct catalyst or satisfy most of the desirable properties required for a suitable support. To improve the disadvantages of participation of alumina support in sulfation reaction, activated carbon as catalyst support which pre-treated with HCl and HNO3 and the effects of acid treatments on the properties of the activated carbon support was studied by pH, BET, FTIR, XRPD, EA, TPD and SEM. Desirable advantages of such catalysts would be: (1) savings in operating costs by lowering the SO2 catalytic oxidation temperature, without the worry of ammonium sulfate production and deposition; (2) the spent catalyst could be regenerated easily and without causes a detrimental effect on stability; and (3) a lower surface acidity of the catalyst supports in order to lower their coking propensity.
It was found that acid treatment significantly changed the surface chemical properties of the activated carbon. At pH>pHslurry the carbon surface are covered by deprotonated carboxyl groups; the negatively charged surface then attracts and adsorbs cations from solution. However, due to the fact that the acidic groups introduced following HNO3 treatment causes cubic effect, CuO may crystallize and can be present on the external surface of the HNO3 treated AC support and increases the crystallite size of the active site.
The kinetics of SO2 removal from flue gas and adsorption in the form of regenerable surface sulfate species on a Cu/AC catalyst were analyzed according to spectroscopic evidence showing the formation of one sulfae specie linked ot Cu site. The spent catalysts could be regenerated by neighboring surface oxygen functional groups and generated Cu, SO2, CO and CO2. Furthremore, under the NO/NH3=1 the NO could be selective catalytic reduction (SCR) with NH3 in the presence of O2, which catalyzed by fresh and spent AC-supported catalyst.
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