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Revision of an aerosol model and retrospective assessment of air quality management practices in Taiwan from 1996 to 2002
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在模式污染物計算程序上，本研究考量CALPUFF之氣膠生成速率機制，以取代原本固定的硫酸鹽及硝酸鹽氣膠的生成速率。此項結果顯示，選用考量CALPUFF機制的結果有助於改善對硫酸鹽及硝酸鹽的模擬，其二氧化硫轉換為硫酸鹽的轉換速率為0.9 – 1.8 S % h-1，氮氧化物轉換為硝酸鹽的轉換速率為 2.0 - 13.0 N % h-1，此速率與其他研究結果相似。
In 1995, Taiwan's Environmental Protection Administration (EPA/TW) instituted a policy of levying emission taxes on polluters in order to combat the rampant national issue of pollution. Since that time, pollution control strategies, tightening exhaust emission standards for industry, improvements in fuel quality, and new stricter vehicle emission standards etc., have been implemented. For examining the effectiveness of these control strategies using an air quality model, this study revises Gaussian trajectory transfer-coefficient modeling system (GTx) on terrain treatments and aerosol formations, to improve the ability of the model. Then, the years from 1996 to 2002 are selected as studying periods to examine the variation of Taiwan's air quality and evaluate the effectiveness of these pollution control strategies using the revised model.
The different terrain treatments are considered in the trajectory procedure in the model to determine the optimal mechanism in complex terrains. In addition, optimized parameters in the trajectory procedure determined from Genetic Algorithm (GA) were used for modeling scenarios. The result shows that the trajectories predicted from “Opt” scenarios (using optimized parameters, ridge and the tethered-sonde meteorological data, and considering the impact of mountains on horizontal and vertical wind velocity) improved the air quality simulation with better correlations. However, more efforts are needed to solve the underestimation in mountain areas, especially in high-polluted episode days.
The formation rates of sulfate and nitrate aerosols in the pollutant procedure in the model are modified from constant values to be varied according to a function of solar radiation, relative humidity, ozone concentration, and NOx concentration. The result shows that new mechanisms, based on mechanisms used in CALPUFF, improved the performance of the model. The simulation from new mechanisms results in better correlation coefficients and lower biases. The calculated conversion rates are 0.9 - 1.8 S % h-1 for SO2 to sulfate aerosols; 2.0 - 13.0 N % h-1 for NOx to nitrate aerosols. These rates are closer to other researches.
Finally, a detailed analysis of change in the concentrations of pollutants (SO2, NOx and particulate matter [PM]) between two three-year periods (from 1996 to1998 (P1) and from 2000 to 2002 (P2)) was conducted. The pollution levels were generally lower in the latter period. Concentrations at 14 EPA/TW stations in central Taiwan were simulated and source apportionment analyses in three of Central Taiwan''s largest cities were conducted using a trajectory transfer-coefficient air quality model. The sulfur control policy greatly reduced SO2 concentration island-wide, a stringent emission standard put into place for gasoline vehicles reduced NOx concentration along highways, and an emissions tax placed on construction sites, as well as a regular program for road-dust sweeping, reduced primary particulate matter. Among all of the pollution abatement policies implemented, the most effective method for reducing PM2.5 concentrations in the three largest cities involved the reduction of fine ammonium sulfate aerosols from point sources (56%-63% of net PM2.5 reduction). The next largest reduction was attributed to a dimishment in primary PM2.5 emanating from point sources (27%-56% of net PM2.5 reduction). Secondary particulate matter, especially sulfate, was reduced from distances up to 150 km leeward of major pollution point sources such as Taichung Power Plant.
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