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標題: 利用生物轉換技術萃取米糠蛋白之研究
Study on Extraction of Rice Proteins from Rice Bran Using Biotransformation Techniques
作者: 陳錦樹
關鍵字: 食品科技;應用研究;Rice bran;defatted rice bran;rice bran protein;phytic acid;biotransformation;enzymatic treatment;fermentation treatment;raw starch digesting koji;hemicelluases;raw starch digesting enzyme;Saccharomycopsis fibuligera
米糠是稻穀在去殼、碾白過程中產生之主要副產物,約佔稻穀的5-10%。米糠富含脂質、蛋白質和粗纖維,並含有豐富之維生素E 與B 群、礦物質等成分。另外,米糠尚含有肌醇六磷酸酯(又稱植酸)等具抗氧化與抗癌等保健功能的生理活性物質。不過,因米糠存在高活性脂解酶,極容易發生氧化性酸敗等品質劣化現象,不耐貯藏進而限制其利用性,實在可惜。米蛋白是一種優質的植物性蛋白質,且為低過敏性,可作為高蛋白營養補充劑或嬰兒配方食品,又具有乳化性、發泡性及保水性等功能性可取代乾酪素使用,亦能進一步開發成具生理活性胜肽的機能性食品素材使用。米糠中蛋白質含量達12-17%,遠高於食用精白米(約7%)。因此,從米糠中萃取蛋白質以製備高附加價值食品是利用米糠資源之一個重要手段。本研究擬以米糠為原料,進行米糠脫脂後,再利用生物轉換技術萃取米糠蛋白,內容包括1). 市售半纖維素酶及/或蛋白酶進行酵素處理;2). 接種生料麴及/或具生澱粉水解能力之酵母Saccharomycopsis fibuligera 進行輕度發酵;3). 上述二者同步進行。藉此破壞細胞壁,以及澱粉與蛋白質之天然結合態,進而將米糠蛋白質順利分離出來。和傳統鹼萃取法相比,本法具有環保、減廢之優點,而且對蛋白質分子破壞(變性)最小,適合做為食品添加物或生產具良好機能性之食品素材使用。

Rice bran is a by-product of the rice milling process (polishing of brown rice to whiterice), and accounts for 5-10% of paddy weight. It is well known that rice bran containsabundant oil, protein, and crude fiber. In addition, it also contains a high level of vitamins,minerals, and active materials such as inositol hexaphosphate (i.e. phytic acid), which hasbeneficial functions of antioxidant activity, and anticancer. However, utilization of rice branis limited in Taiwan due to the rapid oxidative rancidity, catalyzed by lipase, of lipidcomponent. Rice protein is one of the best proteins from plant sources. It is of relatively highnutritional value and is also hypoallergenic. Rice protein is a good source for preparingnutritional supplements with high protein and baby food formulation, and food additives dueto its good functionalities of emulsifying ability, foaming ability, and water-holding ability.Moreover, the protein is also a desirable starting material to prepare physiologically activepeptides further.Rice bran contains a substantial amount of protein ranging from 12 to17%, which ismuch higher than that of polished rice (ca. 7%). Therefore, rice bran is a potential source ofextracting high quality protein for food use in new value-added products. In the present study,rice bran is used and defatted. The defatted rice bran is then treated with somebiotransformation techniques to extract proteins. These treatments include 1). Use ofcommercial hemicellulases and/or proteases; 2). Uses of the raw starch-digesting koji and/ora yeast (Saccharomycopsis fibuligera) capable of digesting raw starch; 3). Use of the abovementioned enzymes, koji and yeast simultaneously. After the transformation treatments, bothcell wall structures and starch-protein complex present in rice bran are therefore destroyed,and results in eventually the release of proteins. Compared to the conventional method ofusing alkali extraction, our approach is characterized as having advantages of low energyconsumption, lower production of wastes and toxic by-products. Furthermore, the extractedrice bran proteins are expected to conserve the native state to a greater extent, this in turnincreases the added-value of rice bran.
其他識別: NSC100-2221-E005-003
Appears in Collections:食品暨應用生物科技學系

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