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標題: 鋪面道路車行揚塵特性與排放係數之建立
Characteristics and The Estimation of Emission Factor From The Paved Roads
作者: 林煜棋
Lin, Yu Chi
出版社: 環境工程學系
本研究主要探討台中市都會區鋪面道路車行揚塵之特性及其影響因子,並建立台中市車行揚塵排放係數與評估真空吸塵掃街的效益。實驗量測時間自1998年3月至1999年4月,量測項目包括總懸浮微粒(TSP )、車流量、風速與坋土負荷量,並以質量平衡法推估台中市鋪面道路車行揚塵排放係數。實驗結果顯示車行揚塵微粒濃度與車流量,坋土負荷量與風速之間呈現正相關,其相關係數為0.98、0.86與0.89。其中在車流量的影響上以汽機車所帶來影響最為嚴重。
車行揚塵排放係數的建立方面,此研究結果顯示車行揚塵排放係數為0.69±0.36 g/VKT,其中來自汽、機車尾氣排放的貢獻量約12 %,而排放係數 (EF) 與風速 (U) 及坋土負荷量 (SL) 之關係式為 EF = 0.47 U0.81 SL0.35,將式中各項參數值代入推估的結果,較美國AP-42之排放係數推估值小約8倍,顯示目前國內車行揚塵排放量有高估的現象,以此排放係數推估台中市每年車行揚塵TSP排放量約2660公噸,為推估之台中市TSP總排放量的9 %。
此外,本研究分析台中市12條主要道路之街塵,發現街塵負荷量介於2.0~9.6 g/m2之間,坋土負荷量為0.3~1.0 g/m2,坋土比例的分布範圍介於5%~12%之間。根據掃街現場量測之數據顯示,以真空掃街車掃街後,街旁TSP濃度較掃街前減少31±17 %。由此推估若台中市執行全面掃街工作,則對空氣品質約有3 %TSP減量的效果。

The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics and the affecting factors on the airborne dust concentrations from the paved roads in Taichung urban area. The dust emission factor was established and the efficiency of vacuum sweeping the road dust were also assessed in this study. Several experiments were conducted from March 1998 to April 1999. The measurement included TSP concentration, traffic flow rate, wind speed (U) and the silt loading (SL). Mass balance method was used to determine the particulate emission factor from a paved road. The results indicated the particulate concentrations were welled correlated with traffic flow rate, silt loading and wind speed with the correlation coefficients 0.98, 0.86 and 0.89, respectively.
The determined particulate emission factors from the paved road were 0.690.36 g/VKT with approximately 12 % of the emissions contributed from the vehicular exhaust. The emission factor EF was determined as EF = 0.47 U0.81 SL0.35, which was about 8 times lower than the AP-42 suggested value. It indicated that the emission inventory might overestimated the emissions from the paved road. Based on these studies, the annual TSP emissions from paved road in Taichung City was approximately 2660 tones, which was equivalent to 9 % of the total emissions this city.
Furthermore the study also evaluated the silt loading on 12 main roads in Taichung City. The total surface loading ranged from 2.0 g/m2 to 9.6 g/m2 and the silt loading ranged from 0.3 g/m2 to 1.0 g/m2 which was equivalent to 5~12 % of the road dust. The experimental runs also showed approximately 3117 % reduction in TSP concentrations near road-side after dust-removal by vacuum sweeping truck, which was equivalent to 3 % reduction on ambient TSP concentration.
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