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PM10 Source Apportionment Study in Taichung Harbor Area
|關鍵字:||Atmospheric Particulates;大氣懸浮微粒;Recept Model;Coal-Fire Power Plant;受體模式;燃煤電廠||出版社:||環境工程學系||摘要:||
本研究主要探討台中港地區懸浮微粒之特性及分析其污染來源，研究方法包括大氣懸浮微粒採樣及受體模式分析，實驗於民國87年9月至民國88年1月進行，測站設於台中火力發電廠東北方之清水鎮公所及電廠南方的和美鎮台電服務所，總共進行三次各4~5天的密集採樣，量測項目為PM2.5(氣動直徑小於2.5 mm)及PM2.5-10(氣動直徑在2.5和10 mm之間)的質量濃度、水溶性陰陽離子濃度、碳含量及元素組成。模式部份利用加強因子分析法、主成份因子分析法及化學質量平衡受體模式推估懸浮微粒的污染來源及貢獻量。
實驗結果顯示，採樣期間風向大多為北風或北北東風，清水及和美測站PM10質量平均濃度分別為54.8 mg/m3及69.5 mg/m3，懸浮微粒中主要之物種濃度由高至低依序為元素碳(EC)、有機碳(OC)、SO4=、NH4+、Si、NO3-、Na+及Cl-，此結果說明懸浮微粒主要之污染來源為燃燒過程排放、二次光化氣膠、地殼物質及海水飛沫。此外，清水測站之硫氧化比值(Sulphur oxidation ratio,簡稱S.O.R.)與氮氧化比值(Nitrogen oxidation ratio,簡稱N.O.R.)平均分別為0.35及0.16，和美測站分別為0.19及0.10。兩測站氣膠之中性比值(Neutralisation ratio,簡稱N.R.)分別為1.33與1.40，氣膠屬於鹼性。
利用化學質量平衡受體模式分析PM10污染源貢獻量之結果顯示，清水及和美測站PM10之污染源貢獻量分別為地殼物質佔15.5 %、27.9 %，交通污染源佔26.2 %、29.2 %，農廢燃燒佔17.1 %、13.7 %，硫酸銨佔11.2 %、12.3 %，海水飛沫佔7.7 %、6.2 %，硝酸銨佔2.9 %、2.5 %，燃煤電廠佔1.7 %、1.0 %，重油燃燒佔0.8 %、1.2 %，鋼鐵業佔0.2 %、0.3 %。此二測站之PM10污染來源貢獻量除地殼物質外大致相同。
The purpose of this study was to understand the characteristics and the sources of PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter equal to or less than 10 mm) in Taichung harbor area. PM10 samples were collected at Chinzui and Homei sites from September 1998 to January 1999. Three intensive samplings were conducted in this work. The collected samples were analyzed for water soluble ions, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and metallic constituents.
The results showed that the wind direction during sampling period were mostly from the north or the northeast by north. The average PM10 mass concentration at Chinzui and Homei were 54.8 and 69.5 mg/m3, respectively. The most abundant species in PM10 were EC, OC, SO42-, NH4+, Si, NO3-, Na+, Cl-. The sources which contributed to PM10 were from combustion emission, secondary aerosols, geological material, and from marine spray. The values of Sulphur oxidation ratio (S.O.R.) at Chinzui and Homei were 0.35 and 0.19, respectively while the Nitrogen oxidation ratio (N.O.R.) were 0.16 and 0.10. The corresponding values of Neutralisation ratio (N.R.) at these two stations were 1.33 and 1.40, respectively.
Enrichment factor analyses indicated that the anthropogenic aerosols in this area are from construction activity, from fuel burning, and from agricultural burning. The VARIMAX-rotated principal component analyses identified five major components accounting for approximately 90 % of the total variance. The identified sources were geological material, secondary aerosols, motor vehicle exhaust, fuel burning, and marine spray.
The result of Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model showed that the sources contribution to PM10 at Chinzui and Homei were 15.5 and 27.9 % from geological material, 26.2 and 29.2 % from vehicle exhaust, 17.1 and 13.7 % from agricultural burning, 11.2 and 12.3 % from ammonium sulfate, 7.7 and 6.2 % from marine spray, 2.9 and 2.5 % from ammonium nitrate, 1.7 and 1.0 % from coal-fired power plant, 0.8 and 1.2 % from heavy oil burning, and 0.2 % and 0.3 % from steel plant, respectively. The source apportionment of Chinzui and Homei aerosols were approximately same except geological martial.
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