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Studies on the Sake Brewing and Improvement of the Fermentation Process
清酒為一種使用精白米、米麴、酒母及水為原料,在10-15 ℃下經過並行之糖化與發酵約一個月後,再經壓榨、澄清過濾及殺菌熟成等過程而得,成品酒酒精度約15-16%.由於傳統清酒釀造所涉及之發酵技術層次比米酒或水果酒複雜,故過去只有菸酒公賣局才生產,民間私釀酒業者似乎尚未見.鑑於我國在加入WTO以後,酒類釀造將逐步開放,預期除各種水果酒之外,屬於以米穀類為原料之釀造酒,亦將成為頗具市場競爭性之產品.本計畫擬除建立傳統清酒之釀造方法外,另亦嘗試改良製程以簡化清酒釀造方法,使適合小規模釀造.即改變製麴方式以代替傳統之自製製麴及酒母,預期釀酒過程可因而變得較為簡單.主要工作項目及預期效益包括: 1. 建立傳統清酒釀造之流程與相關技術. 2. 清酒用米麴、酵母等最適菌種之篩選與製造條件之建立,並評估使用乾燥種麴與酵母於清酒釀造上之可能性. 3. 不同種麴製備法所得清酒品質之評估. 4. 建立評估種麴品質或活性之方法.
The Japanese sake is a kind of rice wine which is made from polished rice, rice-koji, yeast starter (called moto) and water. In sake brewing, both saccharification and fermentation proceed simultaneously in the fermentation mash (called moromi) at 10 to 15 ℃ for 30 days. The moromi is then pressed and filtered, followed by blending and pasteurization at 55 to 65 ℃. The alcohol content of sake is about 15 to 16% (v/v) or higher. The sake brewing is highly sophisticated compared to those of fruit wine- or rice liquor-making processes. Therefore, there is no home sake brewing business in Taiwan until now. The project is proposed in order to establish and hopefully simplify the traditional sake fermentation process that will be suitable to a small-scale industry. The followings will be thus achieved in this project, (1) Establishment of the traditional sake brewing process and related technology. (2) Screening of a fungal strain and a yeast strain for optimal koji- and moto-making, respectively. And evaluation of the feasibility of using dehydrated koji and aerobically propagated compressed sake yeast in sake brewing. (3) Quality evaluation of sake made by different processes. (4) Establishment of the method for determining the quality or activity of koji.
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