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Temporal Variations and Characterization of Elements in Ambient Aerosols in Taichung Urban Area
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本研究藉由在2007年1月至2008年6月期間在台中都會區進行大氣懸浮微粒PM2.5與PM2.5-10之採樣，利用感應耦合電漿質譜儀分析微粒中22種元素(Al、Fe、Na、Mg、K、Ca、Sr、Ba、Ti、Mn、Co、Ni、Cu、Zn、Mo、Cd、Sb、Pb、V、Cr、As及Se)的濃度，以瞭解懸浮微粒中元素的組成特性及污染來源。綜合研究結果顯示，利用富集因子區分源自地殼源之元素有Al、Fe、Mg、Ca、Ti與Sr，其主要分佈於PM2.5-10中，人為排放源元素有Zn、Pb、Mo、Cu、As、Cd與Se，則集中在PM2.5以下。夏季時期大氣PM2.5中Ni及V之含量均分別較東北季風期間顯著增加28 %與45 %，其與沿海地區及工廠設置密集區域排出污染物輸送至本地有關。另假日期間大氣PM2.5中Mo、Co及Fe的含量較非假日期間顯著減少31 %、27 %及22 %，與柴油重型交通工具在此期間內較無行駛有關。由主成分分析法解析台中都會區大氣懸浮微粒中元素的來源分別有塵土、交通源、重油燃燒、垃圾焚化及燃煤電廠的貢獻。此外，在高PM2.5污染事件日(PM2.5日均值濃度高於65 μg m-3)期間，無論PM2.5或PM2.5-10中22種分析元素之含量與非事件日期間相較均無顯著差異，顯示懸浮微粒中元素之組成及污染來源與非事件日期間並無變化。另沙塵過境期間沙塵氣團不僅挾帶地殼元素外，亦會輸送大量人為排放源元素至此地區，其中PM2.5及PM2.5-10中As、Cd及Se之含量同步較非沙塵暴事件日期間分別顯著增加104 ~ 124 %、55 ~ 73 %及69 ~ 90 %，而利用Mg/Al與Ca/Al之比值估算沙塵過境期間塵土經長程傳輸對台中都會區PM2.5-10與PM2.5之貢獻量分別約為65 %及13 %。
In this study, atmospheric fine and coarse particulates were collected from January 2007 to June 2008 in Taichung urban area. The samples were further analyzed to determine the concentration of 22 elements (Al, Fe, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ti, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, Sb, Pb, V, Cr, As and Se) by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the elemental compositions and sources of particulate matters. According to the analysis of enrichment factors, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, Ti and Sr were originated from crustal sources which were mostly distributed in PM2.5-10, while the trace elements such as Zn, Pb, Mo, Cu, As, Cd and Se were derived from anthropogenic emission sources and were found mainly in PM2.5. The contents of Ni and V measured in summer were 28 % and 45 %, respectively, higher than those measured in the northeastern monsoon, suggesting they were contributed by local emission from industrial park located near coastal area. On the other hand, the contents of Mo, Co and Fe of PM2.5 measured during weekends were 31 %, 27 % and 22 %, respectively, less than those measured in weekdays. These three trace elements might be attributed from heavy duty cars which were usually not used during weekends. By employing the principle component analysis to determine the sources of the elements, the results indicated the sources of particulates in Taichung urban area were mineral dust, traffic emission, fuel oil-fired, municipal solid waste incinerator and coal-fired power plant. During the sampling period, seven Asian dust storm events and seven local PM2.5 episodes (PM2.5 daily mean concentration greater than 65 μg m-3) were identified. Our results further showed that the contents of 22 elements in PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 between local PM2.5 episodes and normal days were not significantly different, indicating the elevated particulate concentrations were mainly contributed by photochemical reactions. During the Asian dust storm events, the long range transport brought not only crustal elements but also anthropogenic species, particularly the contents of As, Cd and Se increased 104 - 124 %, 55 - 73 % and 69 - 90 %, respectively. Furthermore, using the ratio of Mg/Al and Ca/Al to estimate the amount of transported dust and showed approximately 65 % of PM2.5-10 and 13 % of PM2.5 were attributed from the long range transport.
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