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Simulation and direct over-sea observations of radiation, turbulent heat fluxes from research vessels over the South China Sea
|關鍵字:||南中國海;South China Sea;海研一號;沈降速度;渦流協變系統;海洋校正;R/V OR1;deposition resistance;Henry constant;chemical enhancement factor;warm layer;eddy covariance system, diurnal cycle, sea correction;sonic anemometer tilt correction;WPL correction.||出版社:||環境工程學系所||引用:||Angelucci, M. G., N. Pinardi, and S. Castellari, 1998. Air-Sea Fluxes from operational analyses fields: Intercomparison between ECMWF and NCEP analyses over Mediterranean area. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 23, 569-574. Artale, V., D. Iudicone, R. Santoleri, V. Rupolo, S. Marullo, and F. D'Ortenzio, 2002. Role of surface fluxes in ocean general circulation models using satellite sea surface temperature: Validation of and sensitivity to the forcing frequency of the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation. Journal of Geophysical Research 107, C8, doi:10.1029/2000JC000452. Blomquist, B. W., C. W. Fairall, B. J. Huebert, D. J. Kieber, and G. R. Westby, 2006. 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這個研究的主題主要針對南海區域的氣象、能量通量及二氧化碳的觀測，同時比對一維海洋模式、NCEP再分析資料及衛星資料。為了作南海地區的觀測在OR1-728 (2004)、OR1-802 (2006)、OR1-837 (2007)和OR1-861, OR1-873 (2008)航次搭乘海研船至海上作觀測，同時渦流協變系統也架在海研船上作南海地區CO2濃度及通量的觀測。渦流協變系統在海上觀測首先必須克服的是船上晃動及航行造成的數據的錯誤，及海鹽干擾開放性系統CO2濃度的觀測。這個研究用陀螺儀記錄船身晃動三個角度及GPS記錄船速、船向，利用edson et al. (1998)海洋校正公式、2維3維座標旋轉及WPL等校正公式針對海上渦流協變系統20hz資料進行校正。由實驗結果顯示2007年夏季南海深水區域屬於CO2的吸收區域，北緯8度及菲律賓外海區域屬於CO2的排放區。
本研究另外使用一維海洋模式模擬南海區域能量通量及上層的水溫，由模擬結果顯示模擬值和海研船上的觀測值有良好的一致性，方均根誤差小於0.4K。海上觀測的太陽輻射約200W m-2大於潛熱通量的160 W m-2及可感熱通量的10 W m-2。模式和NCEP再分析資料主要的不同在發射率(emissivity)及日夜週期變化，NCEP的發射率為1而海上觀測的為0.96在反照率0.07-0.08時。
一般的海研船量測的海表面溫度不是真實SST，大多為抽取4m深的海水量溫度。雖然溫差只有0.3K左右，然而對於氣體沈降速度估計有0.4 – 4.3 %的差異。當warm layer 發生時會有0.8 – 4.3 %沈降誤差及地表熱通量21 W m-2高估; 當cool-skin 發生時會有0.5 – 2.0 %沈降誤差及地表熱通量21 W m-2低估。
The observations were conducted on a research vessel in summers of 2004, 2006, 2007 and 2008, includeing meteorological variables, surface energy components and CO2 fluxes. This is the pioneering for being set up eddy covariance system on a research vessel with CO2 flux ovservation in domestic. Several C++ programs were wrote for raw data processes, including CTD data arrangement, cruise routes of R/V OR1, screening mechanism of albedo and air pollutant, sea correction, sonic anemometer tilt correction and WPL correction. In order to avoid interference from R/V OR1, the terrestrial longwave radiation was faced vertical plane anf half anti-dazzling reflect solar radiation were faced downward. The CO2 fluxes after WPL correction would be changed from down to up, when CO2 fluxes were less than -5x10-2 mg m-2 s-1. The observed latent heat flux and sensible heat flux are over-estimated even though wind speed is not high. It could not be avoid interference for R/V OR1 itself, caused and over-estimated. In addition, measurements of meteorological variables and surface energy components over the South China Sea (SCS) are compared with the NCEP-DOE AMIP-II reanalysis (NCEP2). The middle part of SCS was CO2 sink, which lower CO2 concentration in air was caused by negative CO2 flux. The southern and northern part of SCS was CO2 source, which higher CO2 concentration in air was caused by positive CO2 flux during OR1-837 cruise. The average pCO2 concentration in air is 397 ppm and in water is 378 ppm during OR1-861 (2008) cruise. The average pCO2 in air > in water, most of CO2 flux is negative by Wanninhof's method.
In addition, a one-column ocean model is used to simulate surface energy components and upper-level water temperatures (at 4 m and 10 m depths). The simulated upper-level water temperatures agree well with the observations during the first two cruises (OR1-728, OR1-802) with a root-mean-square difference (RMSD) smaller than 0.4 K. The observations and the simulations show that the solar radiation (with a mean of ~200 W m-2) is stronger than the latent heat flux (~160 W m-2), and the latent heat flux is stronger than the sensible heat flux (~10 W m-2) during both periods. Nonetheless, the magnitude of variability in heat flux caused by the sporadic wind is not seen in the reanalysis, it appears in the turbulent heat flux simulated by the model. The major differences between the model estimate and the NCEP2 reanalysis are the value of emissivity and the inclusion of diurnal cycles in key variables, with the value of NCEP2 for emissivity as 1. The emissivity of this part of ocean is observed to be 0.96 with albedo at 0.07-0.08. The wind directions are consistency between NCEP and sea correction data in OR1-837 (2007) and OR1-873 (2008) cruises.
It is well known that skin sea surface temperature (SSST) is different from bulk sea surface temperature (BSST) by about a few tenths of a degree Celsius. Nonetheless, it is not well known how large the error is associated with dry deposition (or uptake) estimation by using BSST. This study tries to conduct such an evaluation. For a case study using the data observed from a research ship that cruised over the South China Sea in the summers of 2004 and 2006, it has been found that when a warm layer occurred, the deposition velocities using BSST were underestimated within the range of 0.8 - 4.3 %, and surface ground heat flux was overestimated by 21 W m-2. In contrast, under cool-skin only conditions, the deposition velocities using BSST were overestimated within the range of 0.5 - 2.0 %, varying with pollutants and surface ground heat flux was underestimated by 21 W m-2.
Keywords: South China Sea; R/V OR1; deposition resistance; Henry constant; chemical enhancement factor; warm layer; eddy covariance system, diurnal cycle, sea correction; sonic anemometer tilt correction; WPL correction.
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