Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5721
DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor李季眉zh_TW
dc.contributor胡苔莉zh_TW
dc.contributor.advisor洪俊雄zh_TW
dc.contributor.author郭譯惇zh_TW
dc.contributor.authorKuo, Yi-Tunen_US
dc.contributor.other中興大學zh_TW
dc.date2010zh_TW
dc.date.accessioned2014-06-06T06:35:25Z-
dc.date.available2014-06-06T06:35:25Z-
dc.identifierU0005-3006200912544400zh_TW
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dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11455/5721-
dc.description.abstract台灣地區雖然降雨量豐富,但降雨時間及分布極不平均,需興建水庫來提供穩定自來水水源,但由水庫中所取得之原水水質條件不一,因此,維持淨水程序的正常操作成為一重要課題。傳統淨水處理程序中的快濾池為消毒處理前的最後處理單元,其效能將直接影響供水品質,若有微生物被阻留並生長於濾床中,不僅容易產生臭味,將造成濾床阻塞而縮短濾程,迫使反沖洗次數增加,增加淨水程序操作成本,這類阻塞現象已經多次在台灣的不同淨水廠中被發現。 因此,為瞭解被截留於快濾池中之微生物組成及其對淨水程序產生之可能影響,本研究針對一般操作條件下之原水及模擬濾床中不同深度之濾砂採樣,分別利用16S rDNA及23S plastid rDNA基因序列進行PCR-DGGE分子生物技術分析,藉由定序及資料庫比對,建構出截留於淨水程序快濾池中微生物組成。微生物族群分析分為三部份討論,第一部份為易截留於濾床之微生物,以直接由濾砂上獲得之微生物族群表示,第二部份為易反洗出之族群,以由濾砂懸浮液獲得之微生物族群表示,第三部份為易培養之細菌族群,以經由Nutrient Broth (NB)培養後的細菌族群為主。藻類方面分二部份進行,第一部份針對體積較大且DNA不易萃取之矽藻,利用DAPI染色後進行顯微鏡觀察,第二部份應用藻類23S plastid rDNA基因序列進行PCR-DGGE分析,建構快濾池中之可能藻相,探討其對濾床操作之影響。本研究同時探討在添加不同濃度消毒劑下,濾床菌群結構變化,並分析胞外多醣體(EPS)濃度,已協助判斷消毒劑使用對微生物之影響。 研究結果顯示位於濾床上層微生物多樣性較豐富,中層次之,下層微生物種類較少;存在濾床中的細菌種類大部分為具有分泌胞外多醣體能力之細菌,且細菌族群受季節變化影響不大。藻類多樣性則隨季節不同而變動,經由顯微鏡觀察得知,冬季濾床突發性阻塞情形主要由矽藻(針桿藻)引起。由顯微鏡觀察結果得知當添加消毒劑不足量時,細菌及藻類會產生許多生物性凝聚物質,使針桿藻糾結在一起。配合胞外多醣體分析結果,未添加消毒劑時,各層胞外多醣體濃度平均為20 mg/L,當添加消毒劑濃度為0.3 ppm時,胞外多醣體急遽增加至42 mg/L,當消毒劑濃度為0.6 ppm時,濾床各層胞外多醣體濃度差異不大;當消毒劑濃度提高至1.2 ppm時,胞外多醣體濃度開始下降,且針桿藻糾結情形獲得改善;當消毒劑濃度添加至1.5 ppm時,胞外多醣體下降至12 mg/L,由此可知當消毒劑殺菌力不足時,可能會造成胞外多醣體增加進而影響淨水程序。zh_TW
dc.description.tableofcontents中文摘要 I Abstract II 目錄 IV 表目錄 VII 圖目錄 VIII 第一章 前言 1 第一節 研究緣起 1 第二節 研究目的 2 第二章 文獻回顧 3 第一節 自來水淨水程序 3 一、取水 3 二、導水 3 三、淨水 3 (一) 混凝(Coagulation)與膠凝(Flocculation) 4 (二) 沉澱(Sedimentation) 4 (三) 過濾 4 四、配水 4 第二節 快濾池 6 一、快濾池去除機制 6 二、反沖洗及其微生物相探討 7 第三節 淨水程序之微生物 8 一、原水之微生物 8 二、飲用水之指標性微生物 10 第四節 藻類及其造成之問題 13 一、優養化現象 14 二、臭味問題 14 三、藻毒 15 四、藻類之控制與去除 15 (一) 微篩 (microstraining) 16 (二) 過濾 (filtration) 16 (三) 溶解空氣浮除法 (Dissoloved-air flotation, DAF) 16 (四) 超過濾 (Ultrafiltration, UF)及微過濾 (Microfiltration, MF) 16 第五節 微生物測定 17 一、藻類之定量 17 二、細菌之定量 17 (一) 傳統微生物之定量方法 17 (二) 分子生物技術之定量方法 18 (三) 傳統生物方法與分子生物技術之比較 19 第六節 截留於快濾池之微生物對過濾系統造成可能影響 21 第七節 文獻閱讀心得與研究方向擬定 23 第三章 材料與方法 24 第一節 實驗架構 24 第二節 實驗設備 25 第三節 實驗方法 26 一、樣本來源 26 (一) 鯉魚潭給水廠 26 (二) 快濾池模廠 26 二、濾砂層微生物族群結構分析 28 (一) 前處理 28 (二) 核酸萃取 28 (三) 聚合酶鏈鎖反應 29 (四) 變性梯度凝膠電泳 31 (五) DNA純化 32 (六) 菌種分析 32 (七) 顯微鏡觀察分析 32 三、總菌數測定 33 四、胞外多醣體分析 33 (一) 胞外多醣體之萃取 33 (二) 總醣測定:酚–硫酸法 33 第四章 結果與討論 34 第一節 鯉魚潭給水廠快濾池微生物相分析 34 一、位相差及DAPI染色顯微鏡觀察 34 (一) 快濾池正常操作下之情形 34 (二) 快濾池異常情形下之觀察 36 二、總菌數計數 38 三、菌群結構分析 40 (一) 快濾池正常操作下之情形 40 (二) 快濾池異常情形下之情形 40 第二節 快濾池模擬管柱微生物分析 43 一、位相差及DAPI染色顯微鏡觀察 43 二、總菌數計數 45 三、菌群結構分析 46 四、藻相結構分析 50 第三節 添加不同消毒劑濃度之微生物分析 53 一、位相差及DAPI染色顯微鏡觀察 53 二、總菌數與胞外多醣體之分析 61 三、添加不同濃度之消毒劑菌群結構變化 62 四、添加不同濃度之消毒劑藻相結構變化 64 第四節 綜合討論 66 第五章 結論與建議 70 第一節 結論 70 第二節 建議 71 參考文獻 72 附錄 82 表目錄 表2-1、慢濾池與快濾池之功能性比較 5 表2-2、快濾池之過濾機制 7 表2-3、淨水程序中曾經被分離純化之微生物族群 9 表2-4、廢水中指標性微生物的估計量 11 表2-5、動物糞便中指標微生物之含量 12 表2-6、不同淨水程序對藻類去除之效率 16 表2-7、利用傳統方法培養環境中微生物的可能性 20 表3-1、DNA增殖所使用的引子與其序列 30 表3-2、DNA增殖所使用引子對之PCR條件 30 表3-3、DNA序列長度對應所需之膠體濃度 31 表3-4、變性梯度膠所使用之各化學物質 32 圖目錄 圖2-1、台灣水庫90至96年度優養化程度百分比 13 圖2-2、螢光定量原理與反應偵測標準曲線 19 圖2-3、胞外多醣體萃取程序 22 圖3-1、實驗架構圖 24 圖3-2、現場與模廠採樣日期與分析項目示意圖 27 圖3-3、鯉魚潭給水廠快濾池模擬管柱 26 圖4-1、現場樣本於正常操作條件下之位相差及DPAI染色觀察 35 圖4-2、現場樣本原水高濁度下之位相差及DPAI染色觀察 37 圖4-3、反沖洗水水樣培養結果 39 圖4-4、快濾池正常操作下濾砂樣本之瓊脂膠糖明膠電泳分析圖 40 圖4-5、不同商業套組之DNA萃取測試結果 41 圖4-6、快濾池一般操作下濾砂樣本之DGGE分析圖 42 圖4-7、模廠濾砂樣本之位相差及DPAI染色觀察 43 圖4-8、以NA培養快濾池模廠樣本之總菌數分析 45 圖4-9、以R2A培養快濾池模廠樣本之總菌數分析 46 圖4-10、模廠濾床阻塞樣本之DGGE分析結果 47 圖4-11、模廠濾床阻塞樣本之DGGE分析結果 48 圖4-12、DGGE示意圖與定序比對結果 49 圖4-13、模廠濾床樣本之藻相分析結果 50 圖4-14、模廠濾床樣本之藻相分析結果 52 圖4-15、不同消毒劑濃度之位相差及DPAI染色觀察 55 圖4-16、添加不同消毒劑濃度總菌數及胞外多醣體濃度之變化 61 圖4-17、添加不同濃度消毒劑之菌群結構變化 62 圖4-18、冬季之菌群結構分析 63 圖4-19、添加不同濃度消毒劑之藻相結構變化 64 圖4-20、冬季之藻相結構分析 65zh_TW
dc.language.isoen_USzh_TW
dc.publisher環境工程學系所zh_TW
dc.relation.urihttp://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-3006200912544400en_US
dc.subjectrapid sand filteren_US
dc.subject快濾池zh_TW
dc.subjectMicroorganism compositionen_US
dc.subject微生物組成zh_TW
dc.title探討截留於快濾池中微生物組成及其對過濾系統造成之可能影響zh_TW
dc.titleMicroorganism composition and its possible effect in the rapid sand filter of drinking water treatment processen_US
dc.typeThesis and Dissertationzh_TW
item.openairecristypehttp://purl.org/coar/resource_type/c_18cf-
item.openairetypeThesis and Dissertation-
item.cerifentitytypePublications-
item.fulltextno fulltext-
item.languageiso639-1en_US-
item.grantfulltextnone-
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