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Characteristics of metallic elements in PM over Taichung and an analysis of the possible sources
|關鍵字:||metallic elements;金屬元素;enrichment factor;PCA;TWMC;富集因子法;主成分因子分析;污染物風花圖||出版社:||環境工程學系所||引用:||Balasubramanian, R. and W. B. Qian, “Characterization and Source Identification of Airborne Trace Metals in Singapore,” Journal of Environmental Monitoring, Vol. 6, No. 10, pp. 813-818 (2004). Bukowiecki, N., P. Lienemann, M. Hill, M. Furger, A. Richard, F. Amato, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, B. Buchmann and R. Gehrig, “PM10 Emission Factors for Non-exhaust Particles Generated by Road traffic in an Urban Street Canyon and along a Freeway in Switzerland,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 45, No. 19, pp. 2330-2340 (2010). Byrd, T., M. Stack and A. Furey, “The Assessment of the Presence and Main Constituents of Particulate Matter Ten Microns (PM10) in Irish, Rural and Urban air”, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 75-87 (2010). Chang, C. Y., C. F. Wang, D. T. Mui, M. T. Cheng and H. L. 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In this study, two intensive ambient aerosol experiments were conducted during August 14 to 19 and November 4 to 7 in 2009 at Chinshui, Dadu mountain, Dali and Fengyuan stations in Taichung area. PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were sampled by using high volume air samplers. The collected samples were further analyzed for 20 metallic elements (Al, Fe, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Sr, Ti, Mn, Ba, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sb, Pb, V, Cr, As and Se) by using microwave digestion method and determined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the compositions of metallic elements of PM and the potential sources of pollution in Taichung area.
The results showed that the total concentration of metallic elements in PM2.5 and in PM2.5-10 were 5.1%, 5.3%, 5.1%, 4.2% and 17.4%, 17.1%, 15.7%, 14.1%, at Chinshui, Dadu mountain, Dali and Fengyuan stations, respectively. Based on the analysis of enrichment factors, the crustal elements were Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, K, Ti, Mn and Sr in PM2.5-10, while the anthropogenic elements were Cu, Cr, V, Ni, Zn, Pb, Sb, Cd As and Se in PM2.5 at those stations. However, comparing the concentration of metallic elements at these four stations, the results showed that Na and Mg elements in PM2.5-10 at Chinshui and Dadu mountain where located near the coastal areas were higher than Dali and Fengyuan. The results also indicated that the contribution from sea salt significantly decreased for the inland stations. Abundance of V, Ni and As at Chinshui and Dadu mountain were higher than those at the other two stations. The results of the analysis by using the principal component analysis (PCA) and the wind rose of time weighted mean concentrations (TWMC), showed that the possible sources of pollution were the industrial combustion activities at the west and southwest locations, no significant differences were found in the metallic elements at these two stations. While Mn, Cu, Sb, Ba, and Zn concentrations at Dali and Fengyuan were higher than Chinshui and Dadu mountain stations. Based on the results by using the PCA and metallic elements marker to determine the possible pollution sources, it indicated that the Dali and Fengyuan stations might be affected by anthropogenic activities such as vehicular traffic and incineration. This study showed that the concentrations of the anthropogenic elements at these four stations were lower than these observed in the other domestic industrial regions.
Key words：metallic elements、enrichment factor、PCA、TWMC
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