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dc.contributor.authorShiao, Ya-Wenen_US
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dc.description.abstract本研究於2009年8月14日至19日及11月4日至7日於台中地區清水、大肚山、大里及豐原測站,同步進行兩次大氣懸浮微粒密集觀測實驗,採樣皆利用雙粒徑高量採樣器採集PM2.5及PM2.5-10之微粒樣本,以微波消化法配合感應耦合電漿質譜儀分析微粒中20種金屬元素(Al、Fe、Na、Mg、K、Ca、Sr、Ti、Mn、Ba、Ni、Cu、Zn、Cd、Sb、Pb、V、Cr、As和Se)的濃度,本研究目的主要建立台中地區的金屬元素組成特性,並分析PM的可能污染來源,再進一步探討台中地區是否受沿海地區重大污染源的傳輸影響。 研究結果顯示,清水、大肚山、大里和豐原測站金屬元素濃度分別佔其PM2.5質量濃度的5.1%、5.3%、5.1%和4.2%,而PM2.5-10中則分別佔其質量濃度的17.4%、17.1%、15.7%和14.1%。由富集因子法判定四測站PM2.5-10中主要係以地殼源的金屬元素為主,包括Al、Fe、Ca、Mg、K、Ti、Mn、Sr;另PM2.5中主要以人為污染源元素為主,分別有Cu、Cr、V、Ni、Zn、Pb、Sb、Cd、As和Se。然比較四測站之金屬元素濃度,顯示清水、大肚山測站因靠近沿海地區其Na、Mg等海鹽飛沫元素於粗細粒中均較大里和豐原測站高,且其貢獻量有明顯的遞減,另清水與大肚山測站之V、Ni和As含量濃度較其他兩測站高;由污染物風花圖與主成分因子分析結果顯示污染來源主要受西方和西南方工業燃燒源影響,且兩測站元素組成無顯著差異,而大里和豐原測站之Mn、Cu、Sb、Ba和Zn濃度含量均較其他兩測站高;而利用主成分因子分析及污染源的特徵元素之比較,判定其人為污染源主要包括交通排放及垃圾焚化,另與國內工業區比較,顯示本研究四測站之人為污染源元素濃度均低於工業區之濃度。 關鍵字:金屬元素、富集因子法、主成分因子分析、污染物風花圖zh_TW
dc.description.abstractIn this study, two intensive ambient aerosol experiments were conducted during August 14 to 19 and November 4 to 7 in 2009 at Chinshui, Dadu mountain, Dali and Fengyuan stations in Taichung area. PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were sampled by using high volume air samplers. The collected samples were further analyzed for 20 metallic elements (Al, Fe, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Sr, Ti, Mn, Ba, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sb, Pb, V, Cr, As and Se) by using microwave digestion method and determined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the compositions of metallic elements of PM and the potential sources of pollution in Taichung area. The results showed that the total concentration of metallic elements in PM2.5 and in PM2.5-10 were 5.1%, 5.3%, 5.1%, 4.2% and 17.4%, 17.1%, 15.7%, 14.1%, at Chinshui, Dadu mountain, Dali and Fengyuan stations, respectively. Based on the analysis of enrichment factors, the crustal elements were Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, K, Ti, Mn and Sr in PM2.5-10, while the anthropogenic elements were Cu, Cr, V, Ni, Zn, Pb, Sb, Cd As and Se in PM2.5 at those stations. However, comparing the concentration of metallic elements at these four stations, the results showed that Na and Mg elements in PM2.5-10 at Chinshui and Dadu mountain where located near the coastal areas were higher than Dali and Fengyuan. The results also indicated that the contribution from sea salt significantly decreased for the inland stations. Abundance of V, Ni and As at Chinshui and Dadu mountain were higher than those at the other two stations. The results of the analysis by using the principal component analysis (PCA) and the wind rose of time weighted mean concentrations (TWMC), showed that the possible sources of pollution were the industrial combustion activities at the west and southwest locations, no significant differences were found in the metallic elements at these two stations. While Mn, Cu, Sb, Ba, and Zn concentrations at Dali and Fengyuan were higher than Chinshui and Dadu mountain stations. Based on the results by using the PCA and metallic elements marker to determine the possible pollution sources, it indicated that the Dali and Fengyuan stations might be affected by anthropogenic activities such as vehicular traffic and incineration. This study showed that the concentrations of the anthropogenic elements at these four stations were lower than these observed in the other domestic industrial regions. Key words:metallic elements、enrichment factor、PCA、TWMCzh_TW
dc.description.tableofcontents摘要 I Abstract II 目錄 IV 表目錄 VII 圖目錄 IX 第一章 前言 1 1.1研究緣起 1 1.2研究目的 3 1.3研究方法 3 第二章 文獻回顧 5 2.1台中地區背景資料及空氣品質現況 5 2.1.1台中地區地理環境概述 5 2.1.2台中地區空氣污染排放特性 5 2.2大氣懸浮微粒之組成特性 9 2.2.1大氣懸浮微粒分類與來源 9 2.2.2大氣懸浮微粒之化學組成特性 9 2.3大氣懸浮微粒中金屬元素之組成及特性 11 2.3.1大氣懸浮微粒中金屬元素之組成與來源 11 2.3.2大氣懸浮微粒中金屬元素之特性 13 2.3.3大氣懸浮微粒中金屬元素對人體健康之危害性 14 2.4大氣懸浮微粒中金屬元素之相關研究 16 2.4.1國內地區大氣懸浮微粒金屬元素之研究 16 2.4.2國外地區大氣懸浮微粒金屬元素之研究 18 第三章 實驗與研究方法 21 3.1大氣懸浮微粒實驗規劃 21 3.1.1採樣地點及時間 21 3.1.2採樣儀器設備 25 3.1.3採樣濾紙處理程序 26 3.2大氣懸浮微粒元素分析方法 29 3.2.1懸浮微粒樣本元素濃度之定量分析 31 3.2.2懸浮微粒樣本元素分析之品保與品管 32 3.3大氣懸浮微粒中元素污染來源之研究方法 36 3.3.1富集因子法 36 3.3.2時間加權平均風花圖 37 3.3.3特徵元素推估污染源貢獻量 38 3.3.4主成分因子分析 41 第四章 結果與討論 45 4.1 大氣採樣懸浮微粒質量濃度 45 4.1.1 台中地區大氣懸浮微粒質量濃度之分析結果 45 4.1.2採樣地點與環保署空品測站之比較 53 4.2大氣懸浮微粒中元素濃度分析結果 55 4.2.1懸浮微粒中元素濃度變化 55 4.2.2懸浮微粒中各元素之粒徑分佈特性 65 4.2.3四測站各元素富集因子分析結果 69 4.3大氣懸浮微粒元素組成之比較 71 4.3.1四測站中元素含量之比較 71 4.3.2四測站懸浮微粒中元素濃度之比較 76 4.3.3與國內外各地區元素濃度之比較 81 4.4台中地區四測站元素污染源之分析 89 4.4.1四測站元素濃度之相關性分析 89 4.4.2四測站主成分分析結果 91 4.4.3推估自然源及生質燃燒源貢獻結果 111 4.5四測站與特定污染源含量之比較 118 第五章 結論與建議 121 參考文獻 125 附錄 136zh_TW
dc.subjectmetallic elementsen_US
dc.subjectenrichment factoren_US
dc.titleCharacteristics of metallic elements in PM over Taichung and an analysis of the possible sourcesen_US
dc.typeThesis and Dissertationzh_TW
item.openairetypeThesis and Dissertation-
item.fulltextno fulltext-
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