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標題: 鹿港和二林地區大氣懸浮微粒的化學組成及揚塵污染源指紋資料之建立
Source Apportionment of Ambient Particulates at Lukang and Erlin Sites and an Establishment of the Dust Fingerprints
作者: 賴立蓁
Lai, Lee-Chen
關鍵字: PM2.5;PM2.5;PM2.5-10;Dust fingerprints;CMB receptor model;Lukang;Erlin;PM2.5-10;揚塵指紋;CMB受體模式;鹿港;二林
出版社: 環境工程學系所
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四季的分析結果,兩地區PM10微粒主要含SO42-、NH4+、有機碳、NO3-及元素碳,PM2.5和PM2.5-10微粒中SO42-、NO3-及NH4+分別佔無機鹽類約92 %及58 %,其中PM2.5微粒以夏季SO42-含量最高,主要受光化反應的影響,而地殼元素(Al、Fe、Ca、Na、Mg及K)以秋末濃度為最高。東北季風盛行期間,鹿港地區之PM2.5中As、Se高於其他季節,可能受上風處火力發電廠排放的影響。
揚塵指紋建立方面,濁水溪河床及二林裸露地的揚塵約92 %的質量在粗粒徑範圍,其地殼元素以Al、Fe、K和Ca為主,與鋪面街塵及營建粉塵的指紋相比,濁水溪河床及二林裸露地受人為影響較少。
CMB受體模式推估結果,鹿港及二林地區的PM2.5之污染源,二次氣膠四季平均佔50 %、交通排放佔30 %及燃煤電廠約3 %,PM2.5-10中地殼物質平均佔40 %、交通排放佔35 %及海鹽飛沫約6 %。主成分因子分析結果與CMB結果相符,其懸浮微粒主要受交通排放、地殼物質、燃煤電廠及海鹽的影響。至於秋末揚塵污染嚴重的事件日,其PM2.5-10 中地殼物質的貢獻可達65 %以上,明顯較平常貢獻量40 %為高。

In this study, PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were sampled at Lukang and Erlin sites by using high volume samplers during August 8 to 31 in 2009 and January 20 to 30 in 2010. Chemical compositions of the aerosol samples were then analyzed. In addition, fingerprints of Zhuoshuixi river-bed dust and Erlin soil dust were established in order to use a chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model to apportion the sources of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 in the studied areas. These sampling results were finally combined with those sampled during November 24 to December 7 in 2008 and April 27 to May 3 in 2009 for studying the characteristics, apportions of pollution sources, and seasonal variations of the particulates at Lukang and Erlin.
Based on the results obtained in these four seasons, PM10 mainly contained SO42-, NH4+, organic carbon (OC), NO3-, and elemental carbon (EC). Totally SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+ were 92 % and 58 % in the inorganic species of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10, respectively. The abundance of SO42- in PM2.5 was highest in summer because of the effect of photochemical reactions. However, the crustal elements (Al, Fe, Na, Mg, K, and Ca) were higher in autumn. During the north-eastern monsoon season, As and Se in PM2.5 at Lukang were higher than the other seasons which indicated the influence by a thermal power plant located in the north of Lukang sampling site.
Regarding the dust fingerprints of Zhuoshuixi river-bed dust and Erlin soil dust, there were approximately 92 % of mass in PM2.5-10. The crustal elements were mainly Al, Fe, K, and Ca. The comparison between there and those from paved road dust and construction emitted dust indicated that the Zhuoshuixi river-bed dust and Erlin soil dust contained significantly less anthropogenic species.
CMB modeling results showed the sources of PM2.5 at these sampling sites were about 50 % from secondary aerosols, 30 % from vehicular emissions and 3 % from a coal-fired power plant. There were about 40 % of PM2.5-10 from the crustal elements, 35 % from vehicular emissions and 6 % from marine spray. Similarly, principal component factor analyses were consistent with those obtained by using CMB modeling. Both methods showed the particulates were mainly influenced by vehicular emissions, crustal elements, coal-fired power plant and marine spray. Regarding the episodic event caused by the wind blown dust, the contribution from of crustal elements had reached above 65 % in PM2.5-10 which were significant higher than the average 40 % contribution.
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