Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5768
標題: 土壤特性對芳香族化合物生物有效性之影響:固相微萃取技術對生物復育成效之預測
Effects of Soil Properties on Bioavailability of Aromatic Compounds and Prediction of Bioremediation Efficacy with Solid Phase Microextraction
作者: 劉祥兆
Liu, Hsiang-Chao
關鍵字: bioavailability;芳香族化合物;aromatic compounds;solid phase microextraction (SPME);bagasse compost;sequestration;生物有效性;固相微萃取;蔗渣堆肥;貯滯作用
出版社: 環境工程學系所
引用: 環保署 (2002a) 農地重金屬污染整治技術-植物復育法,第61期,7月 環保署 (2003.01.08) 土壤及地下水污染整治法 環保署環檢所 (2002b) NIEA M167.00C,超音波萃取法 環保署環檢所 (2005) NIEA S102.61B,土壤採樣方法 李育輯 (1998) 土壤吸附非離子界面活性劑對土壤/水系統中有機污染物分佈行為之影響,國立中央大學環境工程學系,碩士論文 李孟哲 (2002) 純化菌株對於多環芳香族碳氫化合物-萘菲分解能力之研究,國立中興大學環境工程學系,碩士論文 邱明良 (2000) 受多環芳香族碳氫化合物-萘、菲污染土壤之生物復育研究,國立中興大學環境工程學系,碩士論文 陳百合 (1996) 不同土壤組成對界面活性劑吸附機制之研究,國立中央大學環境工程學系,碩士論文 陳呈芳 (2005) 自然衰減法於土壤及地下水污染整治之應用,中興工程顧問股份有限公司 張怡塘 (2006) 化學傳輸行為對土壤微生物分解多環芳香烴化合物之影響,國立中央大學環境工程研究所,博士論文 黃慧貞 (2006) 土壤有機質特異組成及含量對非離子有機化合物吸持行為之研究,國立中央大學環境工程研究所,博士論文 黃敬德、謝有容 (1998) 固相微萃取技術之原理及其應用化學,56卷第4期,311-318 蘇世昌 (1999) 受多環芳香族化合物-萘污染環境之生物復育可行性研究,國立中興大學環境工程學系,碩士論文 Ai, J. (1997a) Headspace solid-phase microextraction. Dynamics and quantitative analysis before reaching a partition equilibrium. Anal. Chem. 69, 3260-3266 Ai, J. (1997b) Solid-phase microextraction for quantitative analysis in nonequilibrium situations. Anal. Chem. 69, 1230-1236 Ai, J. (1998) Solid-phase microextraction in headspace analysis. 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摘要: 
本研究以1~4環芳香族化合物為目標污染物,並以不同特性的土壤為介質,觀察芳香族化合物在不同土壤質地、有機質含量以及污染齡的條件下,對於污染物的生物有效性以及分佈所產生的差異。此外,本研究亦採用固相微萃取技術(Solid phase microextraction, SPME)預測污染物在不同土壤特性下的生物有效性。
研究結果發現,當土壤質地由砂質壤土改質為坋質壤土,土壤中芳香族化合物之生物降解速率(μg/g-soil-hr)明顯增加,現地微生物增加-3%~125%,而植種微生物則增加21%~167%;就降解量(μg/g-soil)而言,現地微生物僅有3%~24%的差異,而植種微生物則僅有4%~21%的差異,因此,土壤質地對土壤中芳香族化合物降解量的影響並不顯著。然而,添加蔗渣堆肥將土壤有機質(SOM)含量由SOM 1.3%提升至SOM 7.6%,芳香族化合物之降解速率與降解量則均有明顯下降;現地微生物的降解速率約減少15%~75%,降解量則減少-4%~65%;植種微生物的降解速率約減少4%~58%,降解量則減少-25%~59%。此外,蔗渣堆肥亦會改變化合物於土壤中的分佈,以Pyrene為例,其不可被萃取的部分由未添加蔗渣堆肥土壤的6%提升至SOM 7.6%土壤的56%,使化合物以更穩定的形式殘存於土壤,進而影響化合物之生物有效性,且當化合物Kow越高,影響則越顯著。隨著污染齡的增加生物有效性會大幅減少,而且生物有效性在污染齡四個月之內減少的趨勢最為顯著,此結果說明了化合物於土壤中有明顯的貯滯作用。界面活性劑對於4環Pyrene在含水率為0.2 g-water/g-soil土壤中的生物有效性並無提升的功用,然而,當土壤含水率提升至50 g-water/g-soil時,添加界面活性劑則使降解量由58 μg/g-soil提升至100 μg/g-soil,污染物可被完全降解,證實在土壤含水率充足的條件下,界面活性劑才能發揮增溶效應而提升化合物的生物有效性。
固相微萃取技術對於兩種菌群與四種化合物在六種土壤特性下,生物有效性的預測值與實際降解量兩者具有高度的相關性,然而,對於高環數化合物(如Pyrene)以及土壤特性較為極端的條件(如齡久土壤、坋質壤土及SOM 7.6%的土壤樣品),兩者出現偏差的機率將會明顯提高,因此降低了固相微萃取技術萃取量與生物降解量的相關性(R2僅有0.56);斜率為0.73則說明整體數據而言,固相微萃取技術對於微生物實際降解量有些微高估的傾向;截距10.6代表本研究所探討的條件下,固相微萃取技術大約有10 μg/g的高估值。此外,由於界面活性劑的微胞易與芳香族化合物產生親合作用,造成系統內自由溶解態的濃度降低,因此,當界面活性劑存在時,固相微萃取對於Pyrene在SOM 1.3%與SOM 7.6%的預測值將分別減少41%與77%,進而造成固相微萃取對於樣品的生物有效性與風險評估都出現明顯低估的現象,故固相微萃取技術並不適合預測含有界面活性劑的土壤樣品。

A series of batch experiments were conducted to study the variations of bioavailability and distribution of aromatic compounds in soils with various soil texture, SOM contents, aging, and inoculation conditions. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) was employed to estimate the bioavailability of aromatic compounds in soils.
Experimental results indicated that biodegradation rate increased in soils consisted of more silt and clay. Aromatic compounds in soil was re-distributed with the addition of bagasse compost. The bioavailability of aromatic compounds in soils decreased with an increase in SOM contents. Sequestration of aromatic compounds being observed by bioavailability estimation was evidently occurred in aged soil samples. The amount of sequestrated aromatic compounds was not significantly increased in soil with longer aging period. Bioavailability was not enhanced with the addition of Triton X-100 at lower soil moisture content. However, Triton X-100 could enhance the bioavailability from 58 to 100 μg/g-soil for soil with higher moisture content.
For the 60 tested soil samples, the correlation between the amounts being degraded and the amounts estimated by SPME gave an R2 of 0.56, slope of 0.73, and intercept of 10.6. SPME could not properly estimate the bioavailability of aromatic compounds in soils containing higher MW PAHs, clays, and SOM. In addition, SPME significantly underestimated the bioavailability of aromatic compounds in soils with the presence of surfactant. In general, SPME might be an acceptable method for the prediction of bioavailability of aromatic compounds in soils except surfactant-containing soil.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5768
其他識別: U0005-2501201117530700
Appears in Collections:環境工程學系所

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