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dc.contributor.authorTsai, Hui-Pingen_US
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dc.description.abstract本研究以單環芳香族化合物─苯(benzene)與雙環芳香族化合物─萘(naphthalene, Nap)為目標污染物,於不同實驗條件下,探討芳香族化合物生物降解情形並選用固相微萃取技術(Solid phase microextraction, SPME)預測污染物的生物有效性;探討實際生物降解量與生物有效性預測值之間相關性,期望能以SPME評估土壤受苯與萘污染之生物有效性。 由生物降解試驗結果發現,苯或萘污染濃度達5000 μg/g-soil會造成現地菌毒性效應,植種菌則未有毒性效應。當土壤質地為坋質壤土時受單一苯污染,微生物降解情形呈現二階段(快速降解-緩慢降解)趨勢;隨著土壤有機質含量與污染濃度的增加,微生物的遲滯期有增加趨勢,其中有機質含量的增加因污染物脫附速率為速率限制步驟,使得生物降解量與降解速率皆降低。 苯與萘共存於不同特性的土壤中,可發現質地或有機質含量的改變對於微生物的污染物降解量與降解速率皆無顯著的影響;然而,相同批次條件下萘相對於苯,微生物更容易分解利用萘,使得萘生物降解量與降解速率皆比苯顯著,主要原因為微生物的馴養條件與污染物特性所使然。 就固相微萃取技術預測值與實際微生物降解量的相關性而言,實驗結果顯示兩者相關性並不佳,SPME技術大多有高估生物有效性的現象,其中萘相較於苯,SPME較能準確預測萘生物有效性。不能正確評估水溶相苯的生物有效性的主要原因為苯具高揮發特性所使然,使固相微萃取技術評估值出現偏差的現象。zh_TW
dc.description.abstractThe objective of this study was to use Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) as a tool to assess the bioavailability of benzene and naphthalene in soil. The SPME extractable contaminants would be employed to compare to the actual biodegradable amount of contaminants. These experiments were conducted by a series of batch soil reactor with various conditions, including different soil textures, organic contents, multi-contaminants, and pollutant concentrations. When benzene or naphthalene concentration reached 5000 μg/g-soil, toxic effect was observed in soils containing only indigenous microorganism. Experimental results indicated that when the sandy loam soil was contaminated by benzene, the biodegradation rate decreased with an increase in concentrations, but the biodegradation extents were remarkable enhanced with the addition of seeded microorganism. The bioavailability and the biodegradation rate of benzene in soils decreased with an increase in SOM contents. The result of multi-contaminants (benzene and naphthalene) degradation tests showed that the soil textures and SOM contents had no effects on the bioavailability. However, the result demonstrated that the biodegradation extent of naphthalene was much higher than that of benzene and so of the biodegradation rate due to the properties of microorganisms and chemicals. For all tested samples, the correlation between SPME extractable contaminants and biodegradable contaminants revealed that SPME overestimated the actual amount of biodegradation. Especially the result inferred that SPME could not properly estimate the bioavailability of benzene in soils contaminated by benzene only or by both benzene and naphthalene. Contrast with benzene, SPME is more accurate assess the biodegradeation of naphthaleneen_US
dc.description.tableofcontents摘 要 i Abstract ii 目 錄 iii 表目錄 xi 第一章 前言 1 1-1研究緣起 1 1-2研究目的 4 第二章 文獻回顧 5 2-1芳香族與多環芳香族化合物 5 2-1-1芳香族與多環芳香族化合物基本特性 5 2-1-2芳香族與多環芳香族化合物之來源 8 2-1-3芳香族與多環芳香族化合物之生物降解與代謝機制 9 2-1-4苯(Benzene)的來源、用途以及代謝途徑 11 2-1-5萘(Nap)的來源、用途以及代謝途徑 12 2-2土壤整治技術 15 2-2-1整治方法概述 15 2-2-2生物處理技術之優缺點 17 2-2-3生物處理技術之影響因子 19 2-3有機化合物於土壤中的行為與生物分解之關係 24 2-3-1有機污染物於土壤中的宿命 24 2-3-2土壤吸持作用 27 2-3-3影響有機化合物於土壤中吸附作用之因子 28 2-3-4脫附作用與生物分解作用 29 2-4生物有效性 34 2-4-1生物有效性概述 34 2-4-2生物有效性之定義 37 2-4-3生物有效性之影響因子 39 2-4-4生物有效性之評估方法 45 2-5固相微萃取技術 52 2-5-1固相微萃取簡介 52 2-5-2固相微萃取之萃取方式與原理 54 2-5-3固相微萃取之使用方式與其應用 60 第三章 材料與方法 62 3-1研究架構 62 3-2實驗藥品 64 3-3土壤樣品 65 3-3-1土壤來源與性質 65 3-3-2前處理 65 3-3-3土壤滅菌 65 3-3-4土壤製備 67 3-3-5污染物添加 69 3-4實驗儀器與設備 71 3-4-1超音波萃取裝置 71 3-4-2氣相層析儀 74 3-4-3固相微萃取裝置與型號 76 3-4-4其他儀器設備 78 3-5生物降解批次實驗 79 3-5-1培養用儲備液配製 79 3-5-2無機營養鹽 79 3-5-3實驗菌群 81 3-5-4菌數測定 83 3-5-5生物降解耗氧量計算 84 3-5-6超音波萃取與檢量線建立 88 3-5-7生物降解批次實驗流程圖 91 3-6固相微萃取試驗 94 3-6-1 SPME操作步驟 94 3-6-2最佳化條件 95 3-6-3 SPME檢量線 96 3-6-4生物有效性預測實驗流程圖 96 第四章 結果與討論 98 4-1單一芳香族化合物於土壤中之生物降解批次實驗 98 4-1-1彰化田間土 98 4-1-1-1 Benzene污染濃度的不同對於生物降解之影響 99 4-1-1-2 Nap污染濃度的不同對於生物降解之影響 105 4-1-2土壤質地對於Benzene生物有效性之影響 108 4-1-2-1土壤質地對於Benzene生物降解之影響 108 4-1-2-2土壤質地對於Benzene生物降解量與降解速率之影響 112 4-1-3土壤有機質含量對於Benzene生物有效性之影響 115 4-1-3-1土壤有機質含量對於Benzene生物降解之影響 115 4-1-3-2土壤有機質含量對於Benzene生物降解量與降解速率之影響 119 4-2混合芳香族化合物於土壤中之生物降解批次實驗 122 4-2-1等溫吸附試驗 122 4-2-2土壤質地對於Benzene與Nap共存時其生物有效性之影響 126 4-2-2-1土壤質地對於Benzene與Nap共存時其生物降解之影響 126 4-2-2-2土壤質地對於Benzene與Nap共存時其生物降解量與降解速率之影響 141 4-2-3土壤有機質含量對於Benzene與Nap共存時其生物有效性之影響 148 4-2-3-1土壤有機質含量對於Benzene與Nap共存時其生物降解之影響 148 4-2-3-2土壤有機質含量對於Benzene與Nap共存時其生物降解量與降解速率之影響 159 4-3 SPME技術之適用性評估 166 4-3-1 SPME最佳化條件參數探討 166 4-3-1-1最適水量與固液平衡時間 166 4-3-1-2 SPME飽和吸附試驗 168 4-3-1-3 SPME最佳萃取條件 168 4-3-2 SPME預測生物有效性之適用性 172 4-3-2-1 SPME 萃取量與生物降解關係 172 4-3-2-2 SPME萃取量與不同菌群之關係 175 4-3-2-3 SPME萃取量與植種菌於不同土壤特性之關係 177 4-3-2-4 SPME萃取量與現地菌於不同土壤特性之關係 179 4-3-2-5 SPME技術之應用性 181 第五章 結論與建議 183 5-1結論 183 5-2建議 186 參考文獻 187zh_TW
dc.subjectsolid phase microextraction (SPME)en_US
dc.subjecttoxic effecten_US
dc.titleEffects of Soil Properties on Bioavailability Assessment of Aromatics and PAHs with Solid Phase Microextractionen_US
dc.typeThesis and Dissertationzh_TW
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item.openairetypeThesis and Dissertation-
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