Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5833
標題: 台中地區自來水餘氯分布之探討
Analysis of Residual Chlorine Concentration Distribution of Tap Water in Taichung Area
作者: 王秀燕
Wang, Hsiu–Yen
關鍵字: 台中;Taichung;地理資訊系統;有效餘氯;等濃度圖;暴露人口數;geographic information system;residual chlorine;contour;population
出版社: 環境工程學系所
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(1983) “The Ecology of Acis-Fast Organisms in Water Supply, Treatment, and Distribution System.” J.AWWA, 75(3), 139. 9.Howard, M.J. (1940) “Bacterial Deperciation of Water Quality in Distribution Systems.” J.AWWA. 32(9), 1501. 10.Hutchinson, M. (1971) “The Disinfection of New Water Mains.” Chemistry and Industry, 139. 11.LeChevallier, M.W., Cheryl, D.L. and Ramon, G.L. (1990) “Disinfecting Biofilms in a Model Distribution System.” J.AWWA, 82, 97-99. 12.Lu, C.S. (1991). Theoretical Study of Particle, Chemical and Microbial Transport in Drinking Water Distribution System. Ph.D. thesis, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH. 13.MacLeod, B.W., and Zimmerman, J.A. (1986) “Selected Effects on Distribution Water Quality as a Result of Conversion to Chloramines.” Proc. AWWA WQTC, Dener, Colo, USA. 14.Mckenna, S.M., and Davies, K.J. (1988) “The Inhibition of Bacterial Growth by Hypochlorous Acid.” J. Biochem., 254, 685-692. 15.Means, E.G. (1986) “Effects of Chlorine and Ammonia Application Points on Bactericidal Efficiency.” J.AWWA, 78(1), 62. 16.Niemi, R.M., Knuth, S., and Lundstrum, K. (1982) “Actinomycetes and Fungi in Surface Waters and in Potable Water." Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 43, 378-388. 17.Norman, T.S., Harms, L.L., Looyenga, R.W. (1980) “The Use of Chloramines to Prevent Trihalomethane Formation.” J.AWWA, 72(3), 176. 18.Norton, C.D., and LeChevallier, M.W. (1997) “Chloramination: Its Effect on Distribution System Water Quality.” J. AWWA, 89(7), 66-77. 19.Prevost, M., Rompre, A., Baribeau, H., Coallier, J., and Lafrance, P. (1997) “Service Line: Their Effect on Microbiological Quality.” J. AWWA, 89, 78-91. 20.Reasoner, D.J., and Blannon, J.C., and Geldreich, E.E. (1989) “Nonphotosynthetic Pigmented Bacteria in a Potable Water Treatment and Distribution System.” Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 55, 912. 21.Rosenweig, W.D., Minnigh, H.A., and Pipes, W.O. (1983) “Chlorine Demand and Inactivation of Fungal Propugules.” Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 45, 182-186. 22.Sawyer, C.N., McCarty, P.L., and Parkin, G.F. (1994). Chemistry for Environmental Engineering. 4th edition, McGraw-Hill, Singapore. 23.Schoenen, D. (1986) “Microbial Growth Due to Materials Used in Drinking Water System.” In Biotechnology. Rehm, H.J. and Reed, G. (eds). VCH Verlagsgesellschaft: Weinheim. 24.Sharp, W.W., Preffer, J., and Morgan, M. (1991) “In situ Chlorine Decay Rate Testing.” Proc. AWWARF/USEPA Conf. on Water Quality Modeling in Distribution System, Cincinnati, Ohio. 25.Thomas, E.L. (1979a) “Myeloperoxidase Hydrogen Peroxide Chloride Antimicrobial System: Nitrogen-Chlorine Derivatives of Bacterial Components in Bactericidal Action against Escherichia coli. Infect.” Immun., 23, 522-531. 26.Tuovinen, O.H., and Hsu, J.C. (1982) “Aerobic and Anaerobic Microorganisms I Tubercles of the Columbus, Ohio, Water Distribution System.” Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 44, 761-764. 27.Wable, O. (1991) “Modeling Chlorine Concentrations in a Network and Application to Paris Distribution Network.” Proc. AWWARF/USEPA Conf. on Water Quality Modeling in Distribution System, Cincinnati, Ohio. 28.WHO (2005) “How to Measure Chlorine Residual in Water.” Technical Notes for Emergencies. 二、中文部份 1.王允義,民國84年,利用地理統計方法鑑識土壤重金屬污染之空間分佈,國立臺灣大學農業工程學系碩士論文。 2.台灣自來水公司,民國94年,台水雙月刊,第二十二卷第三期。 3.江柏霖,民國89年,自來水配水槽餘氯濃度變化之研究,國立中興大學環境工程學系碩士論文。 4.行政院環境保護署,民國95年,安全飲用水手冊(第四版)。 5.李冠緯、杜方裕、陳信銘,民國96年,探討改變濾後清水加氯點對加氯率之影響,台灣自來水公司第六區管理處。 6.李連堯,民國94年,「自來水配水系統中餘氯變化之研究」,國立中興大學環境工程學系博士學位論文。 7.李舒寧,民國89年,自來水配水系統中餘氯消耗速率之研究,國立中興大學環境工程學系碩士論文。 8.林信忠、毛博玄、盧烽銘,民國93年,台南市四草地區配水餘氯改善之研究,台灣自來水公司第六區管理處。 9.林增龍、廖啟東,民國96年,如何降低新山淨水場加藥成本之探討,台灣自來水公司第一區管理處。 10.范坤銘,民國99年,大鵬灣及鄰近三河溪豐枯水季底質特性暨多環芳香烴類之間變異分析,大仁科技大學環境管理研究所碩士學位論文。 11.徐貴新,民國87年,台灣地區土壤重金屬含量空間特性分析,國立臺灣大學農業工程學研究所博士論文。 12.陳妍樺,民國95年,噪音地圖對都市噪音環境管理之應用-以台南市為例,國立中興大學環境工程學系碩士論文。 13.陳秀春,民國97年,東興給水廠次氯酸鈉加藥之研討,台灣自來水公司第三區管理處。 14.曾迪華、應堅聖,民國85年,「自來水中三鹵甲烷處理技術之回顧與評估」,第三屆給水技術研討會論文,pp. 165。 15.楊昆霖,民國93年,台灣南部都會區多環芳香烴化合物空間分佈特徵,嘉南藥理科技大學環境工程與科學系碩士論文。 16.楊詩思、廖仲洲、姚寶蓮,民國97年,板新給水廠白濁水期間淨水處理之最佳加藥量及經濟效益探討,台灣自來水公司第十二區管理處。 17.詹侑穎,民國99年,河口揚塵對空氣品質之衝擊評估與對策,朝陽科技大學環境工程與管理系碩士班碩士論文。 18.劉明森,民國98年,為控制供水系統餘氯量以降低加藥成本探討,台灣自來水公司第四區管理處。 19.蔣本基,民國85年,「飲用水中消毒副產物調查及處理技行之評估」,行政院環境保護署。 20.蕭逸雲,民國92年,九二一地震災區居民生活品質空間分布之研究,國立臺灣大學職業醫學與工業衛生研究所碩士論文。 三、網路資源 1.臺灣自來水公司(2012.06.19)http://www.water.gov.tw/02results/res_c_main.asp?bull_id=125 2.臺灣自來水公司第三區管理處(2012.06.19)http://www3.water.gov.tw/page.aspx?uid=71 http://www3.water.gov.tw/page.aspx?uid=70 3.臺北自來水事業處(2012.06.19)http://www.twd.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=9579531&ctNode=47834&mp=114001 4.今日儀器公司(2012.06.24)http://www.todays.com.tw/product-3.asp?ser=855&headpic=type_title19.gif 5.南投縣政府主計處(2012.06.24)http://www.nantou.gov.tw/big5/download.asp?dptid=376480000AU230000&catetype=01&cid=109&cid1=1222 6.台中市政府民政局(2012.06.24)http://www.civil.taichung.gov.tw/news/u_news_v1.asp?id={7B03FC16-2508-44EB-B7F8-2318BC628AF5} 7.太平市戶政事務所(2012.06.24)http://www.htaiping.taichung.gov.tw/main.asp?theme=84 四、其他 1.自來水公司供水處統計資料,2012。 2.自來水公司第四區管理處統計資料,2012。
摘要: 
  本研究針對台中及南投(中興)等地,蒐集民國94至98年之間,各淨水場及各用戶配水抽驗點共141點之自來水餘氯值,並將98年之餘氯數值,以季為單位,透過地理資訊系統繪製自來水餘氯等濃度圖,分析其空間分布之特性及各區在不同餘氯值區間之暴露人口數。
  研究結果顯示,各區之餘氯濃度分布,四季之餘氯值皆有偏高情形,尤以春
夏季更為明顯,推估為因應春夏季較高之耗氯量,所調整之加藥量所致。各區之配水抽驗點配置,有分布不均情形,容易導致無設置抽驗點之區域餘氯值無法掌控。因此應考量定期更換不同配水抽驗點,以達到普及之成效。
  暴露在高濃度(0.5 mg/L以上)之人口數佔71%,除了適飲性、消毒水味重外,也易影響身體健康。因此,建議自來水公司在處理加藥流程時,應考量周全,並精準的掌握濃度分布情形、人口數之暴露情況,作為處理加藥量之参考。

  This study analyzes the residual chlorine concentration of drinking water in Taichung and Nantou (Zhongxing) from 2005 to 2009. Data were collected from water purification plants and water distribution testing points of user (totally 141 points). The geographic information system is employed to develop the contours of quarterly average residual chlorine concentration of 2009, and the exposed populations are also investigated.
  The results show that the residual chlorine concentrations in the investigated area are mostly higher than the expected interval 0.3~0.5mg/L, especially in spring and summer. This may due to the increased dosage of chlorine to fulfill the high chlorine consumption rates in spring and summer. Furthermore, the layouts of the water distribution testing points are not uniformly distributed, resulting in that the residual chlorine of areas without testing points will be hardly monitored. Therefore, locations of water distribution testing points should be periodically replaced and/or changed to achieve effectiveness of monitoring.
  Approximately 71% of the populations are exposed to residual chlorine concentrations higher than the expected values (0.5mg/L). Therefore, issues about water palatability, disinfectant taste and health impacts to residents need to be concerned. Furthermore, water company should collect and control precise information of concentration distribution and exposed population, to set up the guideline determining the chlorine dosages.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5833
其他識別: U0005-1208201201083800
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