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Study on Chemical Compositions of Atmospheric Particulate Matter and Characteristics of Prevailing Visibility in Taichung Urban Area
|關鍵字:||:PM2.5;PM2.5;PM2.5-10;能見度;化學組成;主成份分析;二次氣膠;PM2.5-10;Visibility;Chemical composition;Principal component analysis;Secondary aerosols||出版社:||環境工程學系所||引用:||1. Cheng, S. H., L. X. Yang and X. H. Zhou, "Size-fractionated Water-soluble Ions, Situ pH and Water Content in Aerosol on Hazy Days and the Influences on Visibility Impairment in Jinan, China," Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 45, pp. 4631-4640 (2011). 2. Cheng, M. T. and Y. I. Tsai, "Characterization of Visibility and Atmospheric Aerosols in Urban, Suburban, and Remote Areas," Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 263, pp. 101-114 (2000). 3. Cheng, M. T., W. C. Chou, C. P. Chio, S. C. Hsu, Y. R. Su, P. H. Kuo, B. J. Tsuang, S. H. Lin and C. Chou, "Compositions and Source Apportionments of Atmospheric Aerosol during Asian Dust Storm and Local Pollution in Central Taiwan," Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, Vol. 61, pp. 155-173 (2008). 4. Chio, C. P., M. T. Cheng and C. F. 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本研究於2008年1月至2011年12月期間，於台中都會區進行大氣懸浮微粒PM2.5及PM2.5-10之採樣，分析其水溶性陰陽離子、元素碳和有機碳成分，並利用環保署大里空氣品質監測站及台中氣象站之氣象資料，探討台中都會區大氣懸浮微粒化學組成及大氣盛行能見度變化特性。研究期間平均能見度為10.1 km，四季變化PM2.5-10及PM2.5以春季跟冬季為最高。四季離子化學重組推估之結果顯示，四季之主要二次氣膠污染物均為硫酸銨，其次為硝酸銨，推估之二次有機碳夏季之濃度雖然最低，但其佔PM2.5之比例為最高，顯示夏季光化反應強烈，由相關性來看OC及EC主要來源為交通排放。能見度分層結果顯示，PM2.5隨著能見度越好而有下降的趨勢，SO42-離子為各層級之主要組成，NO3-隨著能見度變好，佔PM2.5中含量從12%下降至7-9 %，隨能見度變好OC所佔比例上升，將能見度最差及能見度最佳之層級進行比較，顯示造成能見度差異的主要原因為低風速所導致的擴散不良與交通排放。而主成份分析結果顯示，台中都會區受到光化反應、交通排放、地殼揚塵污染源影響，而PM2.5與氣狀污染物分析結果則顯示受到交通排放、重油燃燒、光化反應的影響。高污染期間風速均小於1.3 m/s，NO3-、Cl-及K+為非高污染事件日的2.8倍、2.3倍及1.8倍，為濃度增加最多之離子，故除了因低風速所導致的擴散不良氣象條件外，高污染事件日也可能受到農廢燃燒及交通排放的影響。
In this study, ambient aerosols in Taichung urban area from January 2008 to December 2011 were sampled and analyzed for water-soluble ionic species and carbonaceous matter. The meteorological data were collected from Dali Air Quality Monitoring Station and Taichung Meteorology Station. The object of this study was to investigate the characteristics of PM2.5 and prevailing visibility in Taichung urban area. During the sampling period, the average visibility was 10.1 km in the Taichung urban area. The average mass concentrations of PM2.5, PM2.5-10 were higher in spring and winter. The most abundant secondary aerosols in the four seasons were (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3. The mass concentration of secondary organic aerosols in summer was the lowest as compared to those in the other seasons, but the abundance in PM2.5 was the highest. The results indicated that secondary organic aerosols were generated by photochemical reactions in summer. Based on the correlation analyses, it showed that the possible pollution source of OC and EC was traffic emission. The results of visibility stratification demonstrated that the visibility decreased with PM2.5. SO42+ was the major constituent in PM2.5. The results also showed that the percentage of NO3- ranged between 7 to 12 % and OC increased with visibility. Comparing the worst and the best visibility stratification showed the lower wind velocity and traffic emission were the factors affecting the visibility. The result by using principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the possible sources of pollution were photochemical reactions, traffic emission and mineral dust. During the episodic period, the wind velocities were all below 1.3 m/s. The concentration of NO3-, Cl- and K+ were 2.8, 2.3 and 1.8 times higher than those during the normal days. In conclusion, besides the lower wind velocity and the poor dispersion meteorological condition, the episodic events maybe caused by the local agricultural waste burning and traffic emission.
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