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Effect of Atmospheric Particulate Matter and Meteorological Factors on Prevailing Visibility in Taichung Urban Area
|關鍵字:||能見度;Visibility;PM2.5;PM2.5-10;消光係數;化學組成;主成份分析;能見度經驗模式;PM2.5;PM2.5-10;Extinction coefficient;Chemical composition Principal component analysis;Empirical regression model||出版社:||環境工程學系所||引用:||Allard, D. and I. Tombach, "The effects of non-standard conditions on visibility measurement," Atmospheric Environment (1967), vol. 15, pp. 1847-1857, (1981). Ashbaugh, L. L. and R. A. Eldred, "Loss of Particle Nitrate from Teflon Sampling Filters: Effects on Measured Gravimetric Mass in California and in the IMPROVE Network," Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, vol. 54, pp. 93-104, (2004). Babich, P., M. Davey, G. Allen and P. Koutrakis, "Method Comparisons for Particulate Nitrate, Elemental Carbon, and PM2.5 Mass in Seven U.S. Cities," Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, vol. 50, pp. 1095-1105, (2000). Bell, M. L., K. Ebisu, R. D. Peng, J. M. Samet and F. 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研究結果顯示，台中都會區PM2.5、PM2.5-10及PM10之平均質量濃度為28.9 ± 14.3 μg m-3、20.2 ± 10.1 μg m-3及49.1 ± 22.4 μg m-3。而水溶性離子在PM2.5中以SO42-(21.5%)含量最高，依序為NH4+(11.8%)及NO3-(8.4%)；在PM2.5-10方面，以NO3-(11.8%)含量最高，Na+(4.1%)次之。碳成份之OC和EC在PM2.5及PM2.5-10所佔比例分別為17.7%、6.1%及10.9%、2.1%。
In this study, ambient aerosols in Taichung urban area from January 2010 to December 2011were sampled and analyzed for water-soluble ionic species and carbonaceous matter. The meteorological data were collected from Dali Air Quality Monitoring Station and Taichung Meteorology Station.The object of this study was investigating the impact of chemical composition of PM2.5 on prevailing visibility in Taichung urban area due to the planning of domestic PM2.5 control strategies currently.
The results indicated the average mass concentrations of PM2.5, PM2.5-10 and PM10 were around 28.9 ± 14.3 μg m-3, 20.2 ± 10.1 μg m-3 and 49.1 ± 22.4 μg m-3, respectively. The most abundant water-soluble ionic species of the PM2.5 were SO42- (21.5%), NH4+ (11.8%) and NO3- (8.4%). Additionally, the most abundant water-soluble ionic species of the PM2.5-10 were NO3- (8.4%) and Na+ (4.1%). The carbonaceous contents, including OC and EC, accounted for approximately 23.8% of the PM2.5 and 13.0% of the PM2.5-10. Organic and elemental carbons (OC and EC) in PM2.5 constituted over 60% of the carbonaceous contents in PM10 during the sampling periods. Moreover, the average ratio of organic to elemental carbons (OC/EC) in the fine particles was about 3.1. The results presented herein for the PM2.5 suggested that secondary aerosols could be commonly formed in the region.
During the sampling periods, the average visibility was around 10 km in the Taichung urban area. The results of visibility stratification demonstrated that visibility decreased with increasing concentrations of PM2.5, secondary aerosols, OC and EC. The SO42-/NO3- average ratios illustrated NO3- was the main impact factor of visibility stratification.
Based on the calculations of extinction coefficients, the percentage contributions of visibility degrading species to extinction coefficient were 40.6% for Ammonium sulfate, 29.6% for organic matter, 17.8% for elemental carbon, and 12.0% for Ammonium nitrate. The results indicated that ammonium sulfate in PM2.5 was the principal contributor to visibility degradation. Principal component analysis demonstrated that the source of particulates in Taichung metropolitan area were secondary aerosols, traffic emission, agricultural waste burning, and road dust. Furthermore, the visibility in this region was affected significantly by PM2.5 and its chemical compositions. An empirical regression model of visibility based on sulfate, nitrate, and relative humidity was also developed. The model showed that nitrate in PM2.5 was the most sensitive species to visibility variation, indicating that the reduction of NOx emissions of pollution sources could reduce the formation of nitrate and improve the visibility of Taichung metropolitan area.
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