Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5836
標題: 台中都會區大氣懸浮微粒與氣象因子對盛行能見度之影響
Effect of Atmospheric Particulate Matter and Meteorological Factors on Prevailing Visibility in Taichung Urban Area
作者: 丁育頡
Ting, Yu-Chieh
關鍵字: 能見度;Visibility;PM2.5;PM2.5-10;消光係數;化學組成;主成份分析;能見度經驗模式;PM2.5;PM2.5-10;Extinction coefficient;Chemical composition Principal component analysis;Empirical regression model
出版社: 環境工程學系所
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摘要: 
本研究藉由2010年1月至2011年12月期間在台中都會區進行大氣懸浮微粒PM2.5與PM2.5-10之採樣,並分析其化學組成,同時蒐集環保署大里空氣品質監測站及台中氣象站之氣象資料,探討台中都會區大氣懸浮微粒的化學組成與盛行能見度之關係,由於目前國內致力於PM2.5管制策略之規劃,因此將主要探討PM2.5及其組成對能見度的影響。
研究結果顯示,台中都會區PM2.5、PM2.5-10及PM10之平均質量濃度為28.9 ± 14.3 μg m-3、20.2 ± 10.1 μg m-3及49.1 ± 22.4 μg m-3。而水溶性離子在PM2.5中以SO42-(21.5%)含量最高,依序為NH4+(11.8%)及NO3-(8.4%);在PM2.5-10方面,以NO3-(11.8%)含量最高,Na+(4.1%)次之。碳成份之OC和EC在PM2.5及PM2.5-10所佔比例分別為17.7%、6.1%及10.9%、2.1%。
台中都會區平均能見度約為10公里,藉由能見度分層比較結果發現,能見度隨著PM2.5濃度增加而下降,而能見度與二次氣膠濃度亦有相同趨勢,藉由SO42-/NO3-之比值發現,NO3-為影響能見度分層之主要因子。
由能見度消光係數的計算結果得知,PM2.5中(NH4)2SO4對於消光係數有最大的貢獻量,約佔40.6%,而有機物約佔29.6%次之,再者為EC與NH4NO3,分別約佔17.8%及12.0%。此結果顯示硫酸鹽為能見度下降的主要貢獻因子。由主成份分析結果顯示,台中都會區之大氣受到二次氣膠、交通排放、農廢燃燒及道路揚塵之影響,而都會區能見度,顯然受到PM2.5及其化學組成之明顯影響。從台中都會區能見度之經驗模式發現,硝酸銨對能見度最具敏感度,顯示減少NOx污染源之排放,則可降低都會地區之大氣氣膠NO3-之生成,進而改善能見度。

In this study, ambient aerosols in Taichung urban area from January 2010 to December 2011were sampled and analyzed for water-soluble ionic species and carbonaceous matter. The meteorological data were collected from Dali Air Quality Monitoring Station and Taichung Meteorology Station.The object of this study was investigating the impact of chemical composition of PM2.5 on prevailing visibility in Taichung urban area due to the planning of domestic PM2.5 control strategies currently.
The results indicated the average mass concentrations of PM2.5, PM2.5-10 and PM10 were around 28.9 ± 14.3 μg m-3, 20.2 ± 10.1 μg m-3 and 49.1 ± 22.4 μg m-3, respectively. The most abundant water-soluble ionic species of the PM2.5 were SO42- (21.5%), NH4+ (11.8%) and NO3- (8.4%). Additionally, the most abundant water-soluble ionic species of the PM2.5-10 were NO3- (8.4%) and Na+ (4.1%). The carbonaceous contents, including OC and EC, accounted for approximately 23.8% of the PM2.5 and 13.0% of the PM2.5-10. Organic and elemental carbons (OC and EC) in PM2.5 constituted over 60% of the carbonaceous contents in PM10 during the sampling periods. Moreover, the average ratio of organic to elemental carbons (OC/EC) in the fine particles was about 3.1. The results presented herein for the PM2.5 suggested that secondary aerosols could be commonly formed in the region.
During the sampling periods, the average visibility was around 10 km in the Taichung urban area. The results of visibility stratification demonstrated that visibility decreased with increasing concentrations of PM2.5, secondary aerosols, OC and EC. The SO42-/NO3- average ratios illustrated NO3- was the main impact factor of visibility stratification.
Based on the calculations of extinction coefficients, the percentage contributions of visibility degrading species to extinction coefficient were 40.6% for Ammonium sulfate, 29.6% for organic matter, 17.8% for elemental carbon, and 12.0% for Ammonium nitrate. The results indicated that ammonium sulfate in PM2.5 was the principal contributor to visibility degradation. Principal component analysis demonstrated that the source of particulates in Taichung metropolitan area were secondary aerosols, traffic emission, agricultural waste burning, and road dust. Furthermore, the visibility in this region was affected significantly by PM2.5 and its chemical compositions. An empirical regression model of visibility based on sulfate, nitrate, and relative humidity was also developed. The model showed that nitrate in PM2.5 was the most sensitive species to visibility variation, indicating that the reduction of NOx emissions of pollution sources could reduce the formation of nitrate and improve the visibility of Taichung metropolitan area.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5836
其他識別: U0005-0708201216085100
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