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A Study on Seasonal Variations in Metallic Elements of Ambient Coarse and Fine Particulates
|關鍵字:||PM2.5;PM2.5;PM2.5-10;金屬元素;季節性變化;主成分分析;沙塵暴;PM2.5-10;metallic elementsseasonal variations;PCA;Asian dust storm||出版社:||環境工程學系所||引用:||1. Allen, A. G., E. Nemitz, J. P. Shi, R. M. Harrison, R. M and J. C. Greenwood, ”Size distributions of trace metals in atmospheric aerosols in the United Kingdom,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 35, No. 27, pp. 4581–4591. (2001) 2. Brook, R. D. and S. Rajagopalan, ”Particulate Matter, Air Pollution, and Blood Pressure,” Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 332–350 (2009). 3. Chang, C. Y., C. F. Wang, D. T. Mui, M. T. Cheng and H. L. Chiang, “Characteristics of Elements in Waste Ashes from a Solid Waste Incinerator in Taiwan,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 165, No. 1-3, pp. 766-773 (2009). 4. Chen, J., M. Tan, Y. Li, J. Zheng, Y. Zhang, Z. Shan, G. Zhang and Y. 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本研究分析2007 ~ 2010年台中都會區四季懸浮微粒的金屬元素組成特性和濃度變化，並解析元素的可能污染來源，採樣部份主要利用雙粒徑分道採樣器採集PM2.5及PM2.5-10微粒樣本，再以微波消化法配合感應耦合電漿質譜儀分析微粒中22種元素(Al、Fe、Na、Mg、K、Ca、Sr、Ba、Ti、Mn、Co、Ni、Cu、Zn、Mo、Cd、Sb、Pb、V、Cr、As及Se)的濃度。研究結果顯示PM2.5中春、夏、秋和冬四季之元素總濃度佔PM2.5質量濃度分別為5.1 %、3.6 %、4.1 %和4.9 %，PM2.5-10則分別為15.4 %、13.1 %、13.6 %和16.2 %。由富集因子法分析PM2.5-10微粒的地殼元素為Al、Ti、Mg、Fe、K、Sr和Ca，而Cu、As、Zn、Mo、Pb、Se、Cd和Sb等人為污染源元素則主要集中於PM2.5。另外根據主成分因子分析和集群分析結果顯示台中都會區四季懸浮微粒元素來源都受地殼與揚塵、交通排放和重油燃燒影響。所有元素的季節性變化特性並非一致，PM2.5和PM2.5-10中Sb和Ni在夏季期間含量較其它季節高，然而其它元素大多皆以夏季為最低，至於Sb的來源可能來自柴油車尾氣排放、垃圾焚化或煞車墊片，而Ni可能來自重油燃燒、鋼鐵廠和垃圾焚化。採樣期間共收集10波沙塵暴，這10波沙塵暴與非事件日相比，地殼元素Al、Fe、Mg、K、Ca、Sr和Ti皆有顯著增量(P<0.05)，而PM2.5中人為污染元素Cu、Zn、Pb、As和Se亦有明顯增量(P<0.05)，此外有三波停留在海上時間較長其海鹽成份(Na與Mg)與經過工業區之路徑相較，有增量的趨勢。而高污染事件日期間(PM2.5日均值大於65 μg/m3)，PM2.5中人為污染元素與非事件日相比各元素都沒有顯著差異，高污染的原因除了低風速之影響外，污染來源尚需進一步探討。
In this study, atmospheric particulates were collected from 2007~2010 in Taichung urban area. The purpose of this study was to investigate the seasonal variations in metallic elements of particulate matters. PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were sampled by using dichotomous samplers. The samples were further analyzed to determine the concentration of 22 elements (Al, Fe, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ti, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, Sb, Pb, V, Cr, As and Se) by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results showed that the toatal concentration of metallic elements in PM2.5 and in PM2.5-10 were 5.1 %, 3.6 %, 4.1 %, 4.9 % and 15.4 %, 13.1 %, 13.6 %, 16.2 %, in Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter, respectively. Based on the analysis of enrichment factors, the crustal elements were Al, Ti, Mg, Fe, K, Sr and Ca in PM2.5-10, while the anthropogenic elements such as Cu, As, Zn, Mo, Pb, Se, Cd and Sb were found mainly in PM2.5. The results of the analysis by using principal component factor analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA), showed that the possible sources of pollution were mineral dust, traffic emission, oil-fired burner , in all season. Seasonal variations for all metallic elements were not the same. Especially the contents of Sb and Ni in summer were higher than those in the others seasons, however, the contests of other elements were lowest in summer. The possible sources of Sb may come from diesel vehicles, incinerator or brake pads, while the sources of Ni may be from the combustion of heavy duty oil, steel plants or incinerator. Totally 10 Asian dust storms occurred during the sampling period. The dust storms brought not only crustal elements (Al, Fe, Mg, K, Ca, Sr and Ti), which were found significantly increased (P<0.05), but also anthropogenic elements (Cu, Zn, Pb, As and Se) which were also found significantly increased (P<0.05). In those storm events, there were three Asian dust storms passing over the ocean for longer time as compared with other dust storm paths which passed over the industrial areas. As the result the contents of Na and Mg for the three dust storms increased. Our results further showed that t the contents of anthropogenic elements in PM2.5 between local PM2.5 episodes and normal days were not significantly different. The reason for the episodic events is due to the lower wind speed, however the pollution sources still need further investigation.
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