Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
標題: 奈米矽片去除優養化水體中微囊藻可行性探討
Microcystis aeruginosa removal using nanosilicate platelets in eutrophicated water bodies
作者: 李承澔
Li, Cheng-Hao
關鍵字: 奈米矽片;nano-silicate plate;微囊藻;微囊藻毒素;生長抑制;microcystis sp;microcystins;growth inhibition
出版社: 環境工程學系所
引用: Abdullah, W.S., Alshibli, K.A., and Al-Zou''bi, M.S. “Influence of pore water chemistry on the swelling behavior of compacted clays.”Applied Clay Science, Vol. 15(5), pp. 447-462, 1999. Akhlaq, M.S., Schuchann, H.P. and von Sonntag, C. “Degradation of the Polysaccharide Alginic Acid:A Comparison of the Effects of UV Light and Ozone.” Environ. Sci. Technol. Vol. 24,pp. 379-383, 1990. Ahn, C.Y., Joung, S.H., Jeon, J.W., Kim, H.S., Yoon, B.D., and Oh, H.M. “Selective control of cyanobacteria by surfactin-containing culture broth of Bacillus subtilis C1. ” Biotechnol Letters, Vol. 25(14), pp. 1137-1142, 2003. Anderson, D.M., and Morel, F.M.M. “Copper sensitivity of Gonyaulax tamarensis.” Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 23(2), pp. 283-295, 1978. Appel, H.M. “Phenolics in ecological interactions: the importance of oxidation” Journal of Chemical Ecology, Vol. 19(7), pp. 1521-1552, 1993. Ashitani, K., Hishida, Y., and Fujiwara, K. “Behavior of musty odorous compounds during the process of water treatment.” Water Science & Technology, Vol. 20(8), pp.261-267, 1988. Baek, S.H., Sun, X.X., Lee, Y.J., Wang, S.Y., Han, K.N., Choi, J.K., Noh, J.H., and Kim, E.K. “Mitigation of harmful algal blooms by sophorolipid.” Journal of microbiology and biotechnology, Vol. 13(5), pp. 651-659, 2003. Basma, A.A., Al-Homoud, A.S., Malkawi, A.S., and Al-Bashabsheh, M.A. “Swelling-shrinkage behavior of natural expansive clays.”Applied Clay Science, Vol. 11(2), pp. 211-227, 1996. Bergaya, F., and Vayer, M. “CEC of clays: Measurement by adsorption of a copper ethylenediamine complex.” Applied Clay Science, Vol. 12(3), pp. 275-280, 1997. Berg, K., Carmichael, W.W., Skulberg, O.M., Benested, C. and Underlal, B. “Investigation of a toxin water bloom of Microcystis aeruginosa (cyanophyceae) in lake Akersvatn.” Hydrobiologia, Vol.144, pp.97-103, 1987. Bernhardt, H. “Treatment Disturbances with Water Out of Eutrophic Reservoirs as Consequence of Extensive Algal Development.” Water Supply: the Review Journal of International Water Supply Association, 2: ss.4-7 ~ ss.4-15, 1984. Caffrey, J.M., and Monahan, C. “Filamentous algal control using barley straw.” Hydrobiologia, Vol. 415, pp. 315-318, 1999. Carbis, C.R., Mitchell, G.F., Anderson, J.W., and McCauley, I. “The effects of microcystins on the serum biochemistry of crap, Cyprinus carpio L., when the toxins are administered by gavage, immersion and intraperitoneal routes.” Journal of Fish Deseases, Vol. 19(2), pp. 151-159, 1996. Carmichael, W.W. “Freshwater cyanobacteria (blue-green alage) toxins.” Natural toxins, pp. 3-16, 1988. Carmichael, W.W., Azevedo, S.M., An, J.S., Molica, R.J.R., Jochimsen, E.M., Lau, S., Rinehart, K L., Shaw, G.R., and Eaglesham, G.K. “Human fatalities from Cyanobacteria: chemical and biological evidence for cyanotoxins.” Environ Health Perspect, Vol.109(7), pp. 663-668, 2001. Carrado, K.A. “Synthetic organo- and polymer–clays: preparation, characterization, and materials applications.”Applied Clay Science, Vol. 17(1), pp. 1-23, 2000. Chen, J.J., and Yeh, H.H. “The mechanisms of potassium permanganate on algae removal” Water Research, Vol. 39, pp. 4420-4428, 2005. Choe, S., and Jung, I. “Growh inhibition of freshwater algae by ester compounds released from rotted plants.” Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Vol. 8(4), pp. 297-304, 2002. Choi, O., Deng, .K.K., Ross, L.J., Surampallie, R.Y., and Hu, Z. “The inhibitory effects of silver nanoparticles, silver ions, and silver chloride colloids on microbial growth.” Water Research, Vol. 42, pp. 3066-3074, 2008. Choi, Y.S., and Kim, B.W. “Photocatalytic disinfection of E coli in a UV/TiO2-immobilised optical-fibre reactor.” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, Vol. 75(12), pp. 1145-1150, 2000. Chorus, I., and Bartram, J. “Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water: a guide to their public health consequences , monitoring and management.” pp. 423., 1999. Chorus, I. “Cyanotoxin occurrence in freshwaters-A summary of survey results from different countries.” In Cyanotoxins-Occurrence, causes, consequences, pp.75-78, 2001. Chorus, I. “Current Approaches to Cyanotoxin Risk assessment, Risk Management and Regulations in Different Countries.” Federal Environmental Agency, 2005. Chu, C.C., Chiang, M.L., Tsai, C.M., and Lin, J.J. “Exfoliation of Montmorillonite Clay by Mannich Polyamines with Multiple Quaternary Salts.” Macromolecules, Vol. 38, pp. 6240-6243, 2005. Chow, C.W.K., Panglish, S., Mole, J., Drikas, M., Burch, M.D., and Gimbel, R. “A study of membrane filtration for the removal of cyanobacterial cells.” Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology-Aqua, Vol. 46(6), pp. 324-334, 1997. Chow, C.W.K., House, J., Velzeboer, R.M.A., Drikas, M., Burch, M.D., and Steffensen, D.A. “The effect of ferric chloride flocculation on cyanobacterial cells.” Water Research, Vol. 32, pp. 808-814, 1998. Codd, G.A., Morrison, L.F., and Metcalf, J.S. “Cyanobacterial toxins: risk management for health protection.” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Vol. 203(3), pp. 264-272, 2005. Dawson R.M. “The toxicology of microcystins.” Toxicon, Vol. 36(7), pp. 953-962, 1998. Dietrich, M., and Hoehn, R.C. “Oxidation of odorous and nonodorous algal merabolites by permanganate, chlorine, and chlorine dioxide.” Water Science Technology, Vol. 31(11), pp. 223-228, 1995. Dittmann, E., and Borner, T. “Genetic contributions to the risk assessment of microcystin in the environment.” Toxiology and Applied Pharmacology, Vol. 203(3), pp. 192-200, 2005 Dokulil, M.T., Teubner, L. “Cyanobacterial dominance in lakes.” Hydrobiologia, Vol. 438, pp. 1-12, 2000. Drikas, M., Newcombe, G., and Nicholson, B. “Water Treatment Options for Cyanobacteria and Their Toxins.” In Blue-Green Algae: Their significance and management within water supplies, 2002. Dunlop, P.S.M., Byren, J.A., Manga, N., and Eggins, B.R. “The photocatalytic removal of bacterial pollutants from drinking water.” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, Vol. 148, pp. 355-363, 2002. Everall, N.C., Lees, D.R. “The use of barley straw to control general and blue-green algal growth in a Derbyshire reservoir.” Water Research, Vol. 30, pp. 269–276, 1996. Everall, N.C., Lees, D.R. “The identification and significance of chemicals released from decomposing barley straw during reservoir algal control. ” Water Research, Vol. 31, pp. 614–620, 1997. Falconer, I.R. “An overview of problems caused by toxic blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria) in drinking and recreational water.” Environmental Toxicology, Vol. 14(1), pp.5-12, 1999. Falconer, I.R. “Cyanobacterial Toxins of Drinking Water Supplies.” CRC Press, 2004. Fastner, J., Heinze, R., and Chorus, I. “Microcystin-content, hepatotoxicity and cytotoxicity of cyanobacteria in some german water bodies” Water Science Technology, Vol. 32(4), pp. 165-170, 1995. Fawell, J.K., James, C.P., and James, H.A. “Toxins from bluegreen algae: toxicological assessment of microcystin-LR and a method for its determination in water.” Report No. FR 0359/2/DoE 3358/2, Water Research Centre, Medmenham, UK. pp. 46, 1994. Fawell, J.K., Mitchell, R.E., Everett, D.J., and Hill, R.E. “The toxicity of cyanobacteria toxins in the mouse: I microcystin-LR.” Human experimental toxicology, Vol. 18(3), pp. 168-173, 1999. Ferrier, M.D., Butler Sr, B.R., Terlizzi, D.E., and Lacouture, R.V. “The effects of barley straw (Hordeum vulgare) on the growth of freshwater algae” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 96, pp. 1788-1795, 2005. Fischer, W.J., Htizfeld, B.C., Tencalla, F., Eriksson, J.E., Mikhailov, A., and Dietrich D.R. “Microcystin-LR toxicodynamics, induced pathology, and immunohistochemical localization in livers of blue-green algae exposed rainbow trout(Oncorhynchus mykiss).” Toxicological Sciences, Vol. 54(2), pp. 365-373, 2000. Gibson, M.T., Welch, I.M., Barrett, P.R.F., and Ridge, I. “Barley straw as an inhibitor of algal growth. Ⅱ:Laboratory studies.” Journal of Applied Phycology, Vol. 2, pp. 241-248, 1990. Goel, s. Hozalski, R.H., and Bouwer, E.J. “Biodegradation of NOM:Source and Ozone Dose.” Jour. AWWA, Vol. 87(1), pp. 90-105, 1995. Guidici, M.N., Migliore, L., Gambardella, C., and Marotta, A. “Effect of chronic exposure to cadmium and copper on Asellus aquaticus (L.) (Crustacea, Isopoda).” Hydrobiologia, Vol. 157(3), pp. 265-269, 1988. Gustafsson, S., Hultberg, M., Figueroa, R.I., and Rengefors, K. “On the control of HAB species using low biosurfactant concentrations.” Harmful Algae, Vol. 8, pp. 857-863, 2009. Haider, S., Naithani, V., Viswanathan, P.N. and Kakkar, P. “Cyanobacterial toxin: a growing environmental concern.” Chemosphere, Vol. 52, pp. 1-21, 2003. Han, M.Y., and Kim, W. “A theoretical consideration of algae removal with clays.” Microchemical Journal, Vol. 68, pp. 157-161, 2001. Hanson, M.J, and Stefan, H.G. “Side effects of 58 years of copper sulfate treatment of the fairmont lakes, Minnesota.” Journal of AWWA, Vol. 20(6), pp. 889-900, 1984. Harrison, F.L., Knezovich, J.P., and Rice, D.W. “The toxicity of copper to the adult and early life stages of the freshwater clam,Corbicula manilensis.” Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 13(1), pp. 85-92, 1984. Hitzfeld, B.C., Hoger, S.J., and Dietrich, D.R. “Cyanobacterial toxin: Removal during Drinking Water Treatment, and Human Risk Assessment.” Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 108, pp.113-122, 2000. Hoeger, S.J., Shaw, G., Hitzfeld, B.C., and Dietrich, D.R. “Occurrence and elimination of cyanobacterial toxins in two Australian drunking water treatment plants.” Toxicon, Vol. 43(6), pp. 639-649, 2004. House, J., Ho, L., Newcombe, G., and Burch, M. “Strategies and Practices for Management of Toxic Blue-Green Algae: A Guide-Draft.” Australian Water Quality Centre, 2005. Hsu, S.H., Tseng, H.J., Hung, H.S., Wang, M.C., Hung, C.H., Li, P.R., and Lin, J.J. “Antimicrobial Activities and Cellular Responses to Natural Silicate Clays and Derivatives Modified by Cationic Alkylamine Salts. ” Appled Materials and Interfaces, Vol. 1(11), pp. 2556-2564, 2009. Hummert, C., Dahlmann, J., Reichelt, M., and Luckas, M. “Analytical techniques for monitoring harmful cyanobacteria in lakes.” Lakes and Reservoirs: Research and Management, Vol. 6(2), pp. 159-168, 2001. Hummert, C., Reichelt, M., Weiß, J., Liebert, H., and Luckas, B. “Identification of microcystins in cyanobacteria from the Bleiloch former drinking-water reservoir (Thuringia Germany).” Chemosphere, Vol. 44(7), pp. 1581-1588, 2001. Johnson, B.A., Gong, B., Bellamy, W., and Tran, T. “Pilot plant testing of dissolved air flotation for treating Boston''s low-turbidity surface water supply.” Water Science and Technology, Vol. 31(3), pp. 83-92, 1995. Konta, J. “Clay and man: clay raw materials in the service of man.” Applied Clay Science, Vol. 10(4), pp. 275-335, 1995. Kotak, B.G., Kenefick, S.L., Davil, L.F., Colin, G.R., Ellie, E.P., and Steve, E.H. “Occurrence and toxicological evaluation of cyanobacterial toxins in Alberta lakes and farm dugouts.” Water Research, Vol. 27(3), pp.495-506, 1993. Knappe, R., Detlef, R.U., Belk, C., Briley, D.S., Grandy, S.R., Rastogi, N., and Rike, A.H. “Algae Detection and Removal Startegies for Drinking Water Treatment Plants.” American Water Works Association, 2004. Lalezary, S., Pirbazari, M., McGuire, M.J. “Oxidation of five earthy–musty taste and odor compounds.” Journal AWWA., Vol. 78, pp. 62–69, 1986. Lam, A.K.Y., Prepans, E.E., Spink, D., and Hrudey, S.E. “Chemical Control of Hepatotoxic Phytoplankton Blooms: Implication for Human Health.” Water Research, Vol. 29(8), pp. 1845-1854, 1995. Lawton, L.A., and Codd, G.A. “Cyanobacterial (blue-green algal) toxins and their significance in UK and European waters.” Water and Environment Journal, Vol. 5(4), pp. 460-465, 1991. Linsebigler, A.L., Lu, G., and Jr, J.T. “Photocatalysis on TiOn Surfaces: Principles, Mechanisms, and Selected Results.” Chemical Reviews, Vol. 95(3), pp. 735-758, 1995. Liu, Y., Gan, X., Zhou, B., Xiong, B., Li, J., Dong, C., Bai, J., and Cai, W. “Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of tetracycline by highly effective TiO2 nanopore arrays electrode.” Journal of hazardous materials, Vol. 171(1), pp. 678-683, 2009. Liu, G., Fan, C., Zhoug, J., Zhang, L., Ding, S., Yan, S., and Han, S. “Using hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) modified clays to clean the Microcystis aeruginosa blooms in Lake Taihu, China.” Harmful Algae, Vol. 9, pp. 413-418, 2010. Ma J., Graham, N., and Li, G.B. “Effect of permanganate peroxidation in enhancing the coagulation of surface water-laboratory case studies.” Water Supply Research Technology-Aqua, Vol. 46(1), pp. 1-10, 1997. Ma J., Li, G.B., Chen, Z.L., Xu, G.R., and Cai, G.Q. “Enhanced coagulation of surface waters with high organic content by permanganate preoxidation.” Water Science and Technology, Vol. 1(1), pp. 51-61, 2001. Maatouk, I., Bouaicha, N., Fontan, D., and Levi, Y. “Seasonal variation of microcystin concentrations in the Saint-Caprais reservoir (France) and their removal in a small full-scale treatment plant.” Water Research, Vol. 36(11), pp. 2891-2897, 2002. Maizels, M., and Budde, W.L. “A LC/MS Method for the Determination of Cyanobacteria Toxins in Water.” Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 76, pp.1342-1351, 2004. Miyamoto, N., Kawai, R., Kurado, K., and Ogawa, M. “Adsorption and aggregation of a cationic cyanine dye on layered clay minerals.”Applied Clay Science, Vol. 16(3), pp. 161-170, 2000. Montiel, A., and Welté, B. “Preozonation coupled with flotation filtration: Successful removal of algae.” Water Science and Technology, Vol. 37(2), pp. 65-73, 1998. Moore, D.D., and Reynolds, R.C.Jr. “X-ray Diffraction and the Identification and Analysis of Clay Minerals.” Oxford University Press, New York, 1997. Morris, R.J., Williams, D.E., Luu, H.A., Holmes, C.F.B., Andersen, R.J., and Calvert, S.E. “The adsorption of microcystin-LR by natural clay particles.” Toxicon, Vol. 38(2), pp. 303-308, 2000. Mouchet, P., and Bonnelye, V. “Solving Algae Problems: French Expertise and World-wide Application.” Journal of Water Supply, Vol. 47(3), pp.125-141, 1998. Moyers, B., Wu, Y.S. “Removal of organic precursors by permanganate oxidation and alum coagulation.” Water Research, Vol. 19(3), pp. 309-314, 1985. Muchmore, C.B. “Algae control in Water-Supply Reservoirs.” Journal AWWA., Vol. 70(5), pp. 273-279, 1978. Mulligan, C.N. “Environmental applications for biosurfactants.” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 133, pp. 183-198, 2005. Murphy, T., Lawson, A., Nalewajko, C., Murkin, H., Ross, L., Oguma, K., and Mclntyre, T. “Algal toxins: initiators of avian botulism.” Environmental Toxicology, Vol. 15(5), pp. 558-567, 2000. Nakaishi, K. “Flow characteristic of dilute Na montmorillonite suspension ”Applied Clay Science, Vol. 12(4), pp. 377-386, 1997. Nakai, S., Inoue, Y., Hosomi, M., and Murakami, A. “Myriophyllum spicatum released allelopathic polyphenols inhibiting growth of bluegreen algae Microcystis aeruginosa. ” Water Research, Vol. 34, pp. 3026–3032, 2000. Neilan, B.A., Hawkins, P.R., Cox, P.T., and Goodman, A.E. “Towards a molecular taxonomy for the bloom-forming cyanobacteria.” Australian Journal of Marine & Freshwater Research, Vol. 45, pp. 869-873, 1994. Newcombe, G., and Nicholson, B. “Water Treatment Options for Dissolved Cyanotoxins.” Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology-Aqua, Vol. 53, pp. 227-239, 2004. Newcombe, G. “Treatment of Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins in Drinking Water.” Proceedings of The First Internal Conference on Sustainable Water Enviroment: Water Resource and Quality Management, Nov. 2-4, 2005. Newman, Jonathan R., and Barrett, P.R.F. “Control of Microcystis aeruginosa by Decomposing Barley Straw.” Journal of Aquatic Plant Management, Vol.31, pp. 203-206, 1993. Nielsen, L.E., Kadavy, D.R., Rajagopal, S., Drijbar, R., and Nickerson, K.W. “Survey of Extreme Solvent Tolerance in Gram-Positive Cocci: Membrane Fatty Acid Changes in Staphylococcus haemolyticus Grown in Toluene.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 71(9), pp. 5171-5176. 2005. Nor, Y.M. “Ecotoxicity of copper to aquatic biota: A review.” Environmental Research, Vol. 43(1), pp. 274-282, 1987. Oberholster, P.J., Botha, A.M., and Grobbelaar, J.U. “Microcystis aeruginosa: source of toxic microcystins in drinking water.” African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 3(3), pp.159-168, 2004. Pan, G., Zhang, M.M., Chen, H., Zou, H., and Yan, H. “Removal of cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu using local soils. I. Equilibrium and kinetic screening on the flocculation of Microcystis aeruginosa using commercially available clays and minerals. ” Environmental Poullution, Vol. 141(2), pp. 195-200, 2006a. Pan, G., Zou, H., Chen, H., Yuan, X.Z., and Zhang, M.M. “Removal of harmful cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu using local soils. III. Factors affecting the removal efficiency and an in situ field experiment using chitosan-modified local soils. . ” Environmental Poullution, Vol. 141(2), pp. 206–212, 2006b. Park, M.H., Kim, K.H., Lee, H.H., Kim, J.S., and Hwang, S.J. “Selective inhibitory potential of silver nanoparticles on the harmful cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.” Biotechnol Letters, Vol. 32, pp.423-428, 2010. Peller, J.R., Whitman, R.L., Griffuth, S., Harri, P., Peller, C., and Scalzitti, J. “TiO2 as a photocatalyst for control of the aquatic invasive alga, Cladophora, under natural and artificial light.” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, Vol. 186(2), pp. 212-217, 2007. Peterson, H.G.,Hrudey, S.E., Cantin, I.A., Perley, T.R., and Kenefick, S.L. “Physiological toxicity, cell membrane damage and the release of dissolved organic carbon and geosmin by aphanizomenon flos-aquae after exposure to water treatment chemicals” Water Research, Vol. 29(6), pp. 1515-1523, 1995. Plummer, J.D., and Edzwald, J.K. “Effects Ozone on Alage as Precursors for Trihalomethane and Haloacetic Acid Production.” Envirinmental Science and Technology, Vol. 35(18), pp. 3661-3668, 2001. Plummer, J.D., and Edzwald, J.K. “Effects of chlorine and ozone on algal cell properties and removal of algae by coagulation.” Journal of Water Supply, Vol. 51(6), pp. 307–318, 2002. Pierce, R.H., Henry, M.S., Higham, C.J., Blum, P., Sengco, M.R., and Anderson, D.M. “Removal of harmful algal cells (Karenia brevis) and toxins from seawater culture by clay flocculation. ” Harmful Algae, Vol. 3, pp. 141–148, 2004. Pieysch, J., Bornmann, K., and Schmidt, W. “Relevance of intra and extracellular cyanotoxins for drinking water treatment.” Acta hydrochimica et hydrobiologica, Vol. 30(1), pp.7-15, 2002. Pyo, D., and Shin, H. “Extraction and analysis of microcystins RR and LR in cyanobacteria using a cyano cartridge.” Journal of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods, Vol. 51(2), pp.103-109, 2002. Rabergh, C.M.I., Bylund, G., and Eriksson, J.E. “Histopathological effects of microcystin-LR, a cyclic peptide toxin from the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Microcystis aeruginosa, on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).” Aquatic Toxicology, Vol. 20(3), pp. 131-145, 1991. Rai, M., Yadav, V., and Gade, A. “Silver nanoparticles as a new generation of antimicrobials.” Biotechnol Adv., Vol. 27(1), pp. 76-83, 2009. Ribarts, R.D., and Zohary, T. “Temperature effects on photosynthetic capacity, respiration, and growth rates of bloom-froming cyanobacteria.” J. Mar. Freshwater Res., Vol. 21(3), pp.391-399, 1987. Rinehart K.L., Namikoshi, M., and Choie, B.W. “Structure and biosynthesis of toxins from blue-green algae (cyanobacteria).” Journal of applied pyhcology, Vol. 6, pp. 159-176, 1994. Saffermar, R., and Bernstei, I. “Clinical sensitivity to green-algae demonstrated by nasal challenge and in vitro tests of immediate hypersensitivity.” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Vol. 51(1), pp. 22-28, 1973. Schofield, T. “Birmingham Frankley water treatment works redevelopment.” Water Science and Technology, Vol. 31(3), pp. 213–223, 1995. Scragg, A.H., and Bonnett, C. “Inhibition of microalgal growth by silver nitrate.” Biotechnology Letters, Vol. 24, pp. 169-172, 2002. Sedmak, B., and Kosi, G. “The role of microcystins in heavy cyanobacterial bloom formation.” Journal of Plankton Research, Vol. 20, pp. 691-708, 1998. Sengco, M.R., Li, A., Tugend, K., Kulis, D., and Anderson, D.M. “Removal of red- and brown-tide cells using clay flocculation. I. Laboratory culture experiments with Gymnodinium breve and Aureococcus.” Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol.210, pp.41-53, 2001. Sengco, M.R., and Anderson, D.M. “Controlling harmful algal blooms through clay flocculation.” The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, Vol. 52(2), pp. 169-172, 2004. Silvestry-Rodriguez, N., Sicairos-Ruelas, E.E., Gerba, CP,. and Bright, K.R. “Silver as a disinfectant.” Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 191, pp. 23–45, 2007. Singer, P.C., Borchardt, J.H., Colthurst, J.M. “The Effects of Permanganate Pretreatment on Trihalomethane Formation in Drinking Water.” Journal of AWWA., Vol. 72(10), pp. 573-578, 1980. Sotirova, A.V., Spasova, D.I., Galabova, D.N., Karpenko, E., and Shulqa, A. “Rhamnolipid- biosurfactant permeabilizing effects on gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains.” Current Microbiology, Vol. 56(6), pp. 639-644, 2008. Sun, X.X., Choi, J.K., and Kim, E.K. “A preliminary study on the mechanism of harmful algal bloom mitigation by use of sophorolipid treatment.” Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, Vol. 304(1), pp. 35-49, 2004. Sunda, W.G., and Guillard, R.R.L. “The Relationship Between Cupric Ion Activity and the Toxicity of Copper to Phytoplankton.” Journal of Marine Research, Vol. 34, pp. 511-529, 1976. Sunda, W.G., and Lewis, J.M.A. “Effect of complexation by natural organic ligands on the toxicity of copper to a unicellular alga, Monochrysis lutheri.” Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 23(5), pp. 870-876, 1978. Svrcek, C., and Simith, D. “Cyanobacteria toxins and the current state of knowledge on water treatment options: a review.” J. environ. Engine. Sci., Vol. 3, pp. 155-185, 2004. Tiwari, D.K., Behari, J., Sen, P. “Time and dose-dependent antimicrobial potential of Ag nanoparticles synthesized by top-down approach.” Current Science, Vol. 95(5), pp. 647-655, 2008. Turner, P.C., Gammie, A.J., Hollinrake, K., and Codd, G.A. “Pneumonia associated with contact with cyanobacteria.” Br. Med. J., Vol. 300, pp. 1440-1441, 1990. USEPA, Creating a Cyanotoxin Target List for Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule, 2001. Velzeboer, R., Drikas, M., Donati, C., Burch, M., and Steffensen, D. “Release of geosmin by Anabaena circinalis following treatment with aluminium sulphate.” Water Science Technology, Vol. 31(11), pp. 187-194, 1995. Vlaški, A.,Breemen, A. N., and Alaert, G. J. “The algae problem in the Netherlands from a water treatment perspective. ” Journal of Water Supply-Aqua, Vol. 45(4), pp. 184-194, 1996. Wang, X., Gong, L., Liang, S., Han, X., Zhu, C., and Li, Y. “Algicidal activity of rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.” Harmful Algae, Vol.4(2), pp. 433-443, 2005. Welch, I.M., Barrett, P.R.F., Gibsonm, M.T., and Ridge, I. “Barley straw as an inhibitor of algal growth.Ⅰ. Studies in the Chesterfield canal.” Journal of Applied Phycology, Vol. 2, pp. 231-239, 1990. Westrick, J.A., Szlag, D.C., Southwell, B.J., and Sinclair, J. “A review of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins removal inactivation in drinking water treatment.” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Vol. 397, pp. 1705-1714, 2010. WHO, “WHO Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality: Recommendations, 3rd edn.” World Health Organization, Geneva, 2004. Xian, Q., Chen, H., Liu, H., Zou, H., and Yin, D. “Isolation and Identification of Antialgal Compounds from the Leaves of Vallisneria spiralis L. by Activity-Guided Fractionation.” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Vol.13(4), pp. 233-237, 2006. Xie, L., Xie, P., Li, S., Tang, H., and Liu, H. “The low TN:TP ratio, a cause of a result of Microcystis blooms.” Water Research, Vol. 37, pp. 2073-2080, 2003. Xu, Y., Wu, Z., Yu, B., Peng, X., Yu, G., Wei, Z., Wang, G., and Li, R. “Non-microcystin producing Microcystis wesenbergii (Komãrek) Komãrek (Cyanobacteria) representing a main waterbloom-forming species in Chinese waters.” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 156, pp. 162-167, 2008. Yoshinaga, I., Hitomi, T., Miura, A., Shiratani, E., and Miyazaki, T. “Cyanobacterium Microcystis bloom in eutrophicated regulating reservoir.” jarq-japan agricultural research quarterly, Vol. 40(3), pp. 283-289, 2006. Yu, X., Zhou, J., Wang, Z., and Cai, W. “Preparation of visible light-responsive AgBiO3 bactericide and its control effect on the Microcystis aeruginosa.” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Vol. 101, pp. 265-270, 2010. Yuan, J., and Zhang, Z., “Biochemical interference of aquatic macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum on algae.” Acta Ecologica Sinica, Vol. 13, pp. 45-50, 1992. Zou, Z., Chen, Y.F., and Jae, Y. “Visible Light Responding Photocatalyst of Alkali Metal and Ag-Bi Oxide.” CN1526475-A, 2004. Zou, H., Pan, G., Chen, H., Yuan, X.Z. “Removal of cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu using local soils. II. Effective removal of Microcystis aeruginosa using local soils and sediments modified by chitosan.” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 141, pp. 201–205, 2006. Zurawell, R.W., Chen, H., Burke, J.M., and Prepas, E.E. “Hepatotxic cyanobacteria: a review of the biological importance of microcystins in freshwater environments.” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Vol. 8(1), pp. 1-37, 2005. 日本水道協會(Japan Water Works Association),水上試驗法,2001。 徐明宏,含 胺之聚醚胺衍生物插層黏土與氫鍵作用機制之研究,國立中興大學化學工程研究所碩士論文,2005。 歐陽橋輝,“下水道工程學”。長松文化公司出版,2003。
近年來水庫湖泊受污染使優養化現象頻繁發生逐漸受重視,目前在台灣本島共計有 21 座主要水庫,大部分水庫過去皆有優養化情況發生,外島 34 座水庫中有 30 到33 座水庫呈現長年優養化;中國則以長江中下游與西南省區水體優養化情況較嚴重;美國五大湖與其海岸優養化也日益嚴重。優養化造成藻類增生,其中以會產生微囊藻毒之微囊藻造成安全疑慮為近年來水源管理重要議題,現有淨水處理程序如加氯消毒會造成藻體破壞使毒素釋出或混凝沉澱對於溶解性毒素去除效果不佳等困難,因此本研究欲開發一成本低廉且能有效抑制微囊藻生長與其毒素去除之技術。
本研究所使用奈米矽片為天壤土壤經特殊方法製成奈米尺寸材料,在經界面活性劑改質後已有研究結果顯示對於細菌具有相當程度抑制效果。本研究以奈米矽片對培養純藻種之微囊藻進行生長抑制劑量效應的研究,結果顯示在 10 ppm 劑量下即可有效抑制微囊藻生長,並隨著劑量上升對於微囊藻生長抑制速率也隨之上升。水質檢測中濁度也是相當重要項目之一,因此本研究中使用常見混凝劑硫酸鋁與氯化鐵及奈米矽片進行混凝實驗,以低濁度(40 NTU)與高濁度(300-400 NTU)作探討,在低濁度部分低劑量(1 ppm)以傳統混凝劑有較佳效果;在高濁度部分傳統混凝劑使用劑量提升至 50-100 ppm 才能有較佳去除效果,而奈米矽片效果雖然比不上傳統混凝劑,但在 100 ppm 劑量有60% 濁度去除率,表示奈米矽片作為微囊藻整治時不但具有生長抑制效果同時具有濁度去除之能力。
微囊藻所造成另一個問題為其產生之微囊藻毒素,因此本研究以奈米矽片進行批次吸附實驗,了解奈米矽片劑量對 microcsytin-LR 吸附能力,結果顯示隨著奈米矽片劑量上升對於 microcystin-LR 吸附量也隨之上升,在 100 ppm 劑量去除率可達到 47% 當劑量為 500 ppm 去除率則高達 99% 結果顯示奈米矽片亦可良好去除微囊藻所產生之毒素。考慮未來實際應用時對於環境生態的衝擊,本研究以Bacillus halodurans與 Escherichia coli 作為葛蘭氏陽性菌及陰性菌的代表,了解奈米矽片對其影響,在 E. coli 結果中顯示與微囊藻相似生長抑制情形;而 B. halodurans 結果卻相反,隨著奈米矽片劑量上升,細胞濃度生長至越高顯示奈米矽片可幫助生長,顯示奈米矽片作為生長抑制藥劑對於環境中細菌是具有選擇性。
在本研究中以掃描式電子顯微鏡(scanning electron microscope, SEM)進行微囊藻生長抑制實驗中菌體表面觀察,其結果可看出對於微囊藻細胞表面會造成破損,未來將進一步探討其生長抑制機制。

In recent decades, eutrophication of water reservoirs and lakes has drawn much attention. Currently, there are 21 major water reservoirs on Taiwan''s main island, and 34 on its isolated islands. Most of these water reservoirs on main island have been identified as eutrophic and 30 to 33 out the 34 on isolated island have been identified as eutrophic. In China, the most seriously eutrophic lakes are at the downstream of Yangtze River and at the southwestern provinces. The Great Lakes at USA are also threatened by eutrophication. Coming along with eutrophication, the proliferation of algae, especially toxin-generating Microcystis aeruginosa, poses safety concerns in drinking water supply. Water treatment plant usually use chlorination to tackle this problem by breaking the algal cells. However, the released algal toxin cannot be easily removed by coagulation or flocculation. In the meantime, this measure may also generate disinfection byproducts, such as trihalogenated carbon. This study is aimed to develop a technology for effective inhibition of Microcystis aeruginosa and removal of released microcystin LR, the most toxic form of all toxins generated by Microcystis aeruginosa.
The material used in growth inhibition test is nanosilicate platelet (NSP) derived from natural clay minerals. At as low as 10 ppm, NSP demonstrated strong growth inhibition effect. The effects seem to be direct proportional to the dosage. However, similar dosage on two other bacteria, one Gram positive and one Gram negative, showed very different results implying that the growth inhibition effect of NSP could be selective. Two sets of turbidity tests were carried out and traditional coagulant, trivalent aluminum and trivalent iron showed much better results than NSP. However, the results clearly support that NSP is still a good candidate at high turbidity since aluminum and iron are not favored to be added into the water reservoirs directly due to health hazards and taste problems. A toxin adsorption test has been conducted to see if NSP can effectively remove microcystin-LR. The results showed that at 100-ppm and 500-ppm dosages, the removal is 47% and 99%, respectively, suggesting NSP can serve as a very good adsorbent for microcystins.
其他識別: U0005-0408201211143500
Appears in Collections:環境工程學系所

Show full item record

Google ScholarTM


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.