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Effects of Biodiesel and Diesel Particulate Filter on PM2.5and Carbon Emissionsfrom a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine
|關鍵字:||生質柴油;Biodiesel;重型柴油引擎;濾煙器;PM2.5;有機碳;元素碳;HDDE, DPF;PM2.5;Organic carbon;Elemental carbon||出版社:||環境工程學系所||引用:||參考文獻 Adler, J., "Ceramic Diesel Particulate Filters," International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology, vol. 2, pp. 429-439 (2005). Alander, T. J. A., A. P. Leskinen, T. M. Raunemaa and L. Rantanen, "Characterization of Diesel Particles Effects of Fuel Reformulation,Exhaust Aftertreatment, and Engine Operation on Particle Carbon Composition and Volatility," Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 38, pp. 2707-2714 (2004). Biswas, S., J. V. Verma, J. Schauer and C. Sioutas, "Chemical Speciation of PM Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles Equipped with Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Retrofits," Atmospheric Environment, vol. 43, pp. 1917-1925 (2009). Boehman, A. L., J. Song and M. Alam, "Impact of Biodiesel Blending on Diesel Soot and the Regeneration of Particulate Filters," Energy & Fuels, vol. 19, pp. 1857-1864 (2005). 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本研究旨在探討重型柴油引擎使用生質柴油與氧化觸媒濾煙器對PM2.5與碳成分之減量效率，並針對引擎不同扭力與轉速操作，不同孔數密度濾煙器、有無加裝氧化觸媒、濾煙器再生等項目，測試其PM2.5之排放特性；受測油品分別為添加2 %、10 %與20 %廢食用油的B2、B10與B20生質柴油，引擎使用歐洲穩態測試循環於動力計上進行實驗，並利用旋風分離採樣器採集PM2.5樣本，分析PM2.5中總碳(TC)、有機碳(OC)、元素碳(EC)等碳成分之質量濃度與排放係數。
研究結果顯示，生質柴油添加比例越高，PM2.5質量濃度排放越低，B2、B10、B20生質柴油之PM2.5排放濃度依序為52、49、47 mg/m3，其中TC占PM2.5百分比為68 % ~ 89 %，OC/EC比值介於2.2 ~ 5.2，使用生質柴油後，引擎排放微粒中OC為主要成分。引擎由怠速(0 %、750 rpm)至全負載(100 %、1650 rpm)，PM2.5排放質量濃度約增加3倍，OC/EC比值降至0.5；引擎由低轉速(25 %、1650 rpm)至高轉速(25 %、1950 rpm)，PM2.5排放約下降31 %，OC/EC比值介於1.3 ~ 2.8之間，其尾氣溫度、引擎操作與空燃比皆影響PM2.5及碳成分的排放特性。
引擎加裝不同尾氣後處理設備後，PM2.5與碳成分之質量濃度分別約有85 %與90 %以上的減量效率，減量效率受DOC內部微粒再釋出與濾煙器孔數密度多寡等因素影響，而在濾煙器再生期間，PM2.5排放較再生前約增加589 %，再生過程中，DPF內部攔截之微粒呈現大量排放的現象。本研究之成果有助於瞭解廢食用油生質柴油與尾氣後處理設備應用於重型柴油引擎，其PM2.5排放特性與減量效果，以及建立柴油引擎PM2.5、總碳、有機碳與元素碳排放係數資料庫。
The purpose of this study is to investigate the reduction efficiency of PM2.5 and carbonaceous content emitted from a heavy-duty diesel engine (HDDE) by using biodiesel fuel and diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) equipped with diesel particulate filter (DPF). The experiment was under various engine torque and speed. The test include various cell density DPF, DPF with or without DOC, and DPF regeneration process, the characteristics of PM2.5 emission are study. The tested fuels were diesel fuel adding 2 %, 10 %, 20 %, waste cooking oil(B2, B10 and B20), experiment were simulate Europe steady testing cycle on dynamometer, PM2.5 were collected by using a cyclone sampler, and the sample were further analyzed the content of total carbon (TC), element carbon (EC), and organic carbon (OC), the emission factor were also estimated in this study.
The results indicate that using higher percentage of waste cooking oil caused lower PM2.5 emissions, the emitted PM2.5 concentration with B2, B10, B20 by diesel fuel are 52, 49, 47 mg/m3 respectively, the percentage of TC in those emitted PM2.5 varied between 78 % to 89 %. OC/EC ratio are in the range between 2.2 to 5.2, results indicated that OC was the major content of PM2.5 by using biodiesel. The emitted PM2.5 mass concentration increasingly 3 times when engine operation condition change from idle (0 %, 750 rpm) to full load (100 %, 1650 rpm), but the ratio OC/EC decrease to 0.5 when engine operation changed from low speed (25 %, 1650 rpm) to high speed (25 %, 1950 rpm), the PM emission reduce 31 %, and OC/EC ratios varied between 1.3 to 2.8.
In conclusion, this study indicates various exhaust aftertreatment equipments are very effective in removing the PM2.5 and carbonaceous mass concentrations in exhaust with reduction efficiencies of above 85 % and 90 %, respectively. The reduction efficiency by re-release of DOC internal particles and different number of cell density DPF. During the DPF regeneration, the DPF internal particles showing a large number of emission phenomena. The results of this study help to understand the waste cooking oil biodiesel and aftertreatment equipment used with a HDDE, effect the characteristics of PM2.5 and the reduction efficiency. This study also provide the information to establish the emission inventory of PM2.5, TC, OC and EC emitted from diesel engine.
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