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標題: 自發性高溫好氧廢水處理系統之比生物潛熱與動力參數評估
Evaluation of Specific Biological Heat Potential and Kinetic Parameters of an Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Wastewater Treatment System
作者: 洪瑞敏
Hung, Jui-Min
關鍵字: 自發性高溫好氧處理;autothermal thermophilic aerobic treatment (ATAT);比生物潛熱;微生物動力參數;呼吸儀;兩相動力模式;熱平衡模式分析;廢水處理;biological heat potential;microbial kinetic parameters;respirometer;two phases kinetic mode;lwastewater treatment
出版社: 環境工程學系所
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研究結果顯示,呼吸儀兩相動力模式求解的生物反應動力參數:最大比生長速率(maximal specific growth rate, μm)、半飽和係數(half-saturation constant, Ks) 、細胞衰減常數(decay coefficient, Kd) 與淨生長係數(gross growth yield, Yg)有較傳統分析方法低的變異係數(coefficients of variation, Cv),Cv值介於2.5~15.9%,主要因為採用呼吸儀方法所測得之生物攝氧量較傳統BOD分析方法有較佳精確性。因此,呼吸儀及兩相動力模式是一種良好的微生物動力參數分析工具。而當基質濃度為2,500 mg/L(S0/X0 =14.9 ; S0/Ks=9.89 )時的試驗結果,Yo較為趨近Yg,且微生物動力實驗結果的變異係數較低,具有較佳的複現性。因此,建議在呼吸儀批次動力試驗設計植菌條件時,植菌攝氧量條件以S0/X0值為15時較佳。利用上述條件,以化學需氧量為2,500 mg/L的葡萄糖溶液為基質,以呼吸儀進行高溫好氧系統生物動力參數實驗,結果發現高溫好氧系統在55oC條件下,生物反應動力參數μm、Ks、Kd與Yg分別為5.16±0.11/day;401.7±15.2 mg/L;0.39±0.05 1/day與 0.46±0.04 mg biomass/mg substrate as BOD。且生物反應動力參數均有隨溫度提高而增加的趨勢,而μm、Ks、Kd與Yg的vant Hoff-Arrhenius溫度效應常數,則分別為1.040、1.028、1.019與1.033,顯示高溫好氧系統具有較傳統活性污泥更佳的生物反應動力參數,對於處理高濃度有機廢水更具潛力。
然後,本研究針對高溫好氧的廢水處理系統進行比生物潛熱評估研究,污泥停留時間(sludge retention time, SRT)操作在5天的條件下,高溫好氧反應槽分別進流COD濃度為11,250及17,420 mg COD/L的實廠廢水及人工合成廢水,結果發現這兩個系統的COD去除率可達88~93%.,油脂的去除率可達69~72%。反應槽溫度分別維持在43與48oC,評估系統的平均比生物潛熱值(specific biological heat potential, hb)分別為3.7及3.1 kcal/g COD。而以實廠食品廢水及人工合成廢水進流的模廠試驗結果,求得平均Yo值分別為0.10 及 0.13 mg MLSS/mg COD removed。進一步提高進流廢水基質COD濃度達21,460 mg/L,系統的SRT設定操作在5天,反應槽操作溫度分別控制在35、45、55與 65oC。此時系統不同溫度條件下的COD去除率可達77~91%.,油脂的去除率可達50~69%,此時隨著操作溫度提高,有機質與油脂的降解率有提高的趨勢,這結果可能與油脂的隨著溫度提高而相對增加溶解度有關,顯示高溫好氧系統具有良好的有機質及油脂削減效果。而此時ATAT系統在不同溫度條件下平均的hb值介於3.25~3.63 kcal/g COD 之間,而平均Yo值介於0.08 及0.19 mg MLSS/mg COD removed,此時評估系統Yo值的vant Hoff-Arrhenius溫度效應常數值(temperature effect constant, Φ)為0.958,顯示ATAT反應槽隨著操作溫度的提高,將會降低系統的污泥產生量,顯示高溫好氧生物處理可適合處理高濃度有機廢水,並可有效的降低污泥產生量。

The autothermal thermophilic aerobic treatment (ATAT) system is a biological process in which the operating temperature can be spontaneously maintained at 45 - 65oC. Comparing with the activated sludge process (ASP), the ATAT produces significantly less wasted sludge. Although, full-scale ATAT or autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) systems have been well documented in literature, the technology is not widely used due to the scarcity of documentation relating to spontaneity and feasibility. There is no effective technique to evaluate the feasibility of an ATAT system. Therefore, it is necessary to develop evaluation tools for the specific biological heat potential (hb) and kinetic analysis for the ATAT system. This study also verifies the two-phase kinetic model algorithm of respirometer serial dilution kinetic and estimates microbial kinetic parameters.
Based on the two-phase model for analyzing a batch OUR vs. Ou respirogram was analyzed. For this verification study, results showed that the maximal growth rate (μm), half-saturation constant (Ks), decay coefficient (Kd) and gross growth yield (Yg) had lower coefficients of variation (Cv value was 2.5% to 15.9%) than that from the transient method. Because the oxygen uptake estimation variability of substrate was only 2.5%, therefore, respirometer is an advantageous tool to estimate kinetic parameters in microbial systems. Then, it is suggested that the ratio of S0/X0 must be higher 15 for two phase kinetic model algorithm of respirometer. The algorithm was illustrated by a respirometric test on glucose of 2,500 mg/L COD at 55oC. The result shows the μm of 5.16±0.1 1/d, Yg of 0.46±0.04 mg BOD of X/mg BOD of S, Ks of 401.7±15.2 mg/L BOD, and Kd of 0.39±0.05 1/d for the ATAT system. Also, these microbial kinetic parameters had the tendency showing that an increase in temperature also increased these paramenters. The temperature effect constants (Φ) of van’t Hoff-Arrhenius law for μm, Ks, Kd and Yg were 1.040, 1.028, 1.019 and 1.033, respectively. This result demonstrated the ATAT system has successfully competed the traditional active sludge with better microbial kinetic parameters and higher potential treatment efficiency for high concentration organic wastewaters.
Then, this study focuses on the calculation of hb of wastewater in an ATAT system. The treatment system was daily fed with realistic and artificial wastewater at 11,250 and 17,420 mg COD/L, respectively. The wastewater was rich in oil and grease (O&G) at 1,220 and 600 mg/L, respectively. The sludge retention time (SRT) was controlled at 5 days. The results showed that the COD removal efficiency was as high as 88 to 93% for the realistic and artifical wastwaters, respectively. The O&G reduction was 69 to 72%. These two systems could maintain reactor operating temperatures at 43 oC and 48oC, respectively. The average values of hb were 3.7 and 3.1 kcal/g-COD-removed and the observed growth yield (Yo) were 0.10 and 0.13 mg MLSS/mg COD for realistic and artificial wastewater, respectively. Next, this system was daily fed with oily and artificial wastewater at 21,460 mg/L COD. The SRT was controlled at 5 days and tank temperature was controlled at 35, 45, 55, and 65oC. The results showed that the COD removal efficiency was 77% to 91%. However, the O&G removal efficiency was 50% to 69%. These results might indicate that oil and grease become more soluble and accessible to microorganisms at high temperatures. The average values of hb were 3.25 to 3.63 Kcal/g-COD-removed for the artificial wastewater. The values of Y0 were 0.08 to 0.19 mg-MLSS m/L-COD for the wastewater at different temperatures. The temperature effect constant (Φ) of van’t Hoff-Arrhenius law for Yo was 0.958 with ATAT pilot study, which explained typical characteristics showed in the low sludge yield of an ATAT process. The high organic matter removal capacity with low sludge yield of ATAT process have been demonstrated.
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