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標題: 嵌入式Linux在SOC中的移植、模組化及縮減之研究
A study embedded Linux on the SOC:issues for porting, modularity and downsize
作者: 鄭豪裕
關鍵字: embedded system;嵌入式系統;embedded operation system;Linux;SOC;intellectual property;software intellectual property;downsizing;GUI;嵌入式作業系統;Linux;系統單晶片;矽智財;軟體智財;程式碼縮減;圖形化使用者介面
出版社: 電機工程學系
由於系統單晶片(System-On-Chip, SOC)是以RISC為核心並與DSP、記憶體控制器和通訊單元等整合為一顆晶片,所以具有省電、可程式化訂製的特性,並且因成本低所以受到嵌入式手持式設備和無線傳輸設備的廣泛應用。但由於各家IC設計公司的SOC並沒有標準的軟硬體發展平台,所以本篇提出以嵌入式Linux的開放式原始程式碼以及其穩定、完整的網路能力和模組化的設計,研究將嵌入式Linux移植到SOC平台上,並且Linux的通訊協定也能在SOC的實驗平台正常運作,並利用其模組化的特性設計為可重覆使用的BSP之軟體智財IP,使其可針對不同的硬體平台可以重新設定,將來在SOC平臺間移植時,可依不同的硬體環境參數,調整以符合自己的需求。
由於Linux系統核心程式通常先存在Flash ROM中,執行時再載入到記憶體,系統核心或應用程式的執行也因此受限於記憶體。但是因為Linux功能完整,所以最初安裝在桌上型電腦上不含系統核心的最少佔了40Mbytes,但系統廠商為了減省成本,通常不會在SOC的外部電路再加掛記憶體,所以我們提出的方法是將嵌入式Linux的四個部份:系統核心、共享程式庫、RAM Disk、應用程式,進行程式碼的縮減之研究。經過縮減後,我們實驗分析結果為,可以得到較小的RAM disk與嵌入式Linux系統映像檔,並且可因此提升系統核心的記憶體複製和通訊協定之效能。

SOC (System-On-Chip) processors are typically based on a RISC core packaged together with integrated peripherals such as DSP, FPGA and Memory controller on a single chip, therefore the character of SOC are low power, customizable, and immensely popular in embedded hand-held and wireless device. There is no standard for the hardware and software design on SOC platform. We are planning to utilize the Embedded Linux which has open source code, stability, network ability and modular design. Our research is focusing on porting the Linux source code to a SOC device. A modular design method is used for the BSP of Linux design to support the IP (Intellectual Property) reuse so that it can be fitting for different platform.
The Linux-based SOC device and system kernel may resides in Flash ROM, therefore the execution of application must be limited. The minimum system needed to install the Red Hat Linux for set-up disks and exclusive of the kernel is about 40 megabytes. To reduce the cost, the manufacture doesn't usually add extra memory on the SOC board. In this thesis, we propose an approach that is based on Linux operation system. We analyze the kernel, libraries, RAM disk and applications then try to reduce the code size. After code reduction, we analyze the performance of the Linux kernel by using memory copy and communication protocol. Simulation results show we have better performance and smaller RAM disk image and memory image.
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