Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/6068
標題: 銀髮族行動輔助器之地圖建立與導航
Mapping and Navigation of a Mobile Robot Assistant for the Elderly People
作者: 王郁喬
Wang, Yu-Chiao
關鍵字: mobile robot;行動機器人;laser scanner;mapping;navigation;EKF;artificial potential field approach;dynamic programming;雷射掃瞄器;地圖建立;導航;卡爾曼濾波器;虛擬立場;動態規劃
出版社: 電機工程學系所
引用: References [1] http://www.irobot.com/ [2] M. Pollack, S. Engberg, J.T. Matthews, S. Thrun, L. Brown, D. Colbry, C. Orosz, B. Peintner, S. Ramakrishnan, J. Dunbar-Jacob, C. McCarthy, M. Montemerlo, J. Pineau and N. Roy, “Pearl: A Mobile Robotic Assistant for the Elderly,” Workshop on Automation as Caregiver :the Role of Intelligent Technology in Elderly Care (AAAI), August,2002. [3] http://www.sony.net/SonyInfo/QRIO/ [4] B.Graf , M. Hans and R. Schraft “Care-O-bot II—Development of a Next Generation Robotic Home Assistant,” Autonomous Robots, vol. 16, pp.193-205, 2004. [5] J. A. Castellanos, J. Neira, and J. D. Tardós, “Multisensor Fusion for Simultaneous Localization and Map Building,” IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, vol. 17, no. 6, pp.908 - 914, December, 2001 [6] J. Neira, J. D. Tard´os, J. Horn, and G.. Schmidt, “Fusing Range and Intensity Images for Mobile Robot Localization,” IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, vol. 15, no. 1, pp.76-84, February, 1999 [7] K. O. Arras, N. Tomatis, R.Siegwart,“Multi-sensor On-the-Fly Localization Using Laser and Vision,” Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems [8]http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/dnfiles/html/msdn_serial.asp [9] K.T. Song, W. H. Tang, “Environment Perception for a Mobile Robot Using Double Ultrasonic Sensors and a CCD Camera,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial electronics, vol. 43, no. 3, pp.372-379, JUNE 1996 [10] F. Lu, E. Milios. “Robot Pose Estimation in Unknown Environments by Matching 2D Range Scans,” Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 935-938, 1994 [11] K. O. Arras, R. Siegwart. “Feature Extraction and Scene Interpretation for Map-Based Navigation and Map Building,” Proceedings of SPIE, Mobile Robotics XII, Pittsburgh, USA, vol. 3210, pp. 42-53, 1997. [12] P. Jensfelt and H. Christensen “Laser Based Pose Tracking,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Robotics and Automation, vol. 4, pp. 2994-3000, 10-15 May, 1998. [13] R.O. Duda. and P.E. Hart. “Pattern Classification and Scene Analysis,“ John Wiley & Sons ,1973. [14] A. Siadat, A. Kaske, S. Kausmann, M. Dafaut. And R. Husson. “An Optimized Segmentation method for a 2D laser-Scanner Applied to Mobile Robot Navigation,” Proceedings of the 3rd IFAC symposium on Intelligent Components and Instruments for Control Applications, pp.153-158, 1997. [15]L.Zhang, B.K.Ghosh, “Line Segment Based Map Building and Localization Using 2D laser Rangefinder,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, vol. 3, pp.2538-2543, 24-28 April, 2000 [16] G..A. Borges and M.-j. Aldon. “Line Extraction in 2D Range Images for Mobile Robotics,” Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, vol.40, pp.267-297, 2004 [17] K.O. Arras and R. Siegwart “Feature Extraction and Scene Interpretation for Map-Based Navigation and Map building,” Proceedings of Symposium on Intelligent Systems and Advanced Manufacturing, vol. 3120, pp. 4253,1997 [18] M. Fischler and R. Bolles, “Rndom sample consensus: A paradigm for model fitting with application to image analysis and automated cartography,” Communications of ACM, vol. 24(6), pp.381-395, 1981. [19] S.T. Pfister, S. I. Roumeliotis, and J.W. Burdick “Weighted Line Fitting Algorithm for Mobile Robot Map Building and Efficient Data Representation,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, vol. 1, pp.1304-1311, 14-19 September 2003 [20] S. H. Ji, S. K. Kwon, H. T. Kim, and MiQnOn Park “Tracking Navigation using Fuzzy Inference and Sonar-Based Obstacle Avoidance,” Proceedings of the 1993 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Yokohama, Japan, vol.2, pp.898-903, 26-30 Jul,1993 [21] N. C. Griswold and J.EEM. “Control for mobile robots in the presence of moving objects,” IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 263-268, April 1990 [22] D.W. Payton, J. K. Rosenblatt, and D. M. Keirsey, “Plan Guided Reaction” IEEE Transactions on Systems and Cybernetics, vol.20, no. 6, November / December 1990 [23] Y. S. Huang, Design and Implementation of a Nursing-Care Walking Assistant for the Elderly, M.S. Thesis, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chung-Hsing University, June 2005. [24] M. J. Mataric, “Integration of representation into goal-driven behaviorbased robots,” IEEE Trans. Robot. Automat., vol. 8, pp. 304-321, June 1992. [25] V. Nguyen, A. Martinelli, N. Tomatis, R. Siegwart, “A Comparison of Line Extraction Algorithms using 2D Laser Rangefinder for Indoor Mobile Robotics,”, 2005 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems ((IROS 2005), pp.1929 - 1934, 2-6 Aug. 2005. [26] K. H., Wong, “Laser-Based Pose-Tracking,” M.S. Thesis. Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chung-Cheng University, June 2004. [27] P. Jensfelt and H. I. Christensen, “Pose Tracking using Laser Scanning and Minimalistic Environmental Models,” IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 138-147, April 2001. [28] K.S. Kwok and B.J. Driessen, “Path planning for complex terrain navigation via dynamic programming,” Proceedings of the American Control Conference, vol. 4, pp. 2941-2944, June 1999
摘要: 
本論文的研究目的在發展銀髮族行動輔助器之地圖建立、自我定位以及安全導航之方法學與技術。環境地圖之建立是藉由2D雷射掃瞄器對環境做量測,並由量測的資料中進行分群、環境參數的擷取來達成。利用電荷耦合的數位相機配合事前設置的地標可以計算出行動輔助器的初始值。本文提出的自我定位演算法是經由增廣型卡爾曼濾波器(Extended Kalman Filter)融合雷射掃瞄器與里程計的資料來進行估測。最後,為了能夠輔助老年人能從一個地點行走到目標點,本文利用建立虛擬位能場的方法來完成導航,由雷射掃瞄器上得到的資訊將被拿來產生虛擬力場,此虛擬力場將引導行動輔助器完成尋標與防碰撞的行為模式,而基於最短距離為標準的動態規劃則保證可以得到全域之最佳路徑。模擬結果以及實驗數據驗證本文所提之方法的有效性。

This thesis develops methodologies and techniques for mapping, self-localization and safe navigation of a mobile robot assistant for the elderly people. Mapping is accomplished automatically by using a laser scanner which works at 500K baud rate and a CCD camera which is adopted to initialize robot's initial posture in real time. A self-localization algorithm based on the EKF approach is proposed by fusing measurements from the 2-D laser scanner and the two encoders mounted on the driving wheels. Two robot's behaviors, goal seeking and obstacle avoidance, are achieved by an improved potential field approach. The global optimal path is determined using dynamic programming approach. With the optimal path, a new navigation method is presented to steer the vehicle to follow the path by combining goal seeking and obstacle avoidance. A good man-robot interface with touch panel and friendly graphic display and control is designed and implemented so that the elderly people can easily steer the robot. Numerous simulations and experimental results are conducted to verify the effectiveness of these proposed methods.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/6068
其他識別: U0005-0208200600554800
Appears in Collections:電機工程學系所

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