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Mapping and Navigation of a Mobile Robot Assistant for the Elderly People
|關鍵字:||mobile robot;行動機器人;laser scanner;mapping;navigation;EKF;artificial potential field approach;dynamic programming;雷射掃瞄器;地圖建立;導航;卡爾曼濾波器;虛擬立場;動態規劃||出版社:||電機工程學系所||引用:||References  http://www.irobot.com/  M. Pollack, S. Engberg, J.T. Matthews, S. Thrun, L. Brown, D. Colbry, C. Orosz, B. Peintner, S. Ramakrishnan, J. Dunbar-Jacob, C. McCarthy, M. Montemerlo, J. Pineau and N. Roy, “Pearl: A Mobile Robotic Assistant for the Elderly,” Workshop on Automation as Caregiver :the Role of Intelligent Technology in Elderly Care (AAAI), August,2002.  http://www.sony.net/SonyInfo/QRIO/  B.Graf , M. Hans and R. Schraft “Care-O-bot II—Development of a Next Generation Robotic Home Assistant,” Autonomous Robots, vol. 16, pp.193-205, 2004.  J. A. Castellanos, J. Neira, and J. D. Tardós, “Multisensor Fusion for Simultaneous Localization and Map Building,” IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, vol. 17, no. 6, pp.908 - 914, December, 2001  J. Neira, J. D. Tard´os, J. Horn, and G.. 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本論文的研究目的在發展銀髮族行動輔助器之地圖建立、自我定位以及安全導航之方法學與技術。環境地圖之建立是藉由2D雷射掃瞄器對環境做量測，並由量測的資料中進行分群、環境參數的擷取來達成。利用電荷耦合的數位相機配合事前設置的地標可以計算出行動輔助器的初始值。本文提出的自我定位演算法是經由增廣型卡爾曼濾波器(Extended Kalman Filter)融合雷射掃瞄器與里程計的資料來進行估測。最後，為了能夠輔助老年人能從一個地點行走到目標點，本文利用建立虛擬位能場的方法來完成導航，由雷射掃瞄器上得到的資訊將被拿來產生虛擬力場，此虛擬力場將引導行動輔助器完成尋標與防碰撞的行為模式，而基於最短距離為標準的動態規劃則保證可以得到全域之最佳路徑。模擬結果以及實驗數據驗證本文所提之方法的有效性。
This thesis develops methodologies and techniques for mapping, self-localization and safe navigation of a mobile robot assistant for the elderly people. Mapping is accomplished automatically by using a laser scanner which works at 500K baud rate and a CCD camera which is adopted to initialize robot's initial posture in real time. A self-localization algorithm based on the EKF approach is proposed by fusing measurements from the 2-D laser scanner and the two encoders mounted on the driving wheels. Two robot's behaviors, goal seeking and obstacle avoidance, are achieved by an improved potential field approach. The global optimal path is determined using dynamic programming approach. With the optimal path, a new navigation method is presented to steer the vehicle to follow the path by combining goal seeking and obstacle avoidance. A good man-robot interface with touch panel and friendly graphic display and control is designed and implemented so that the elderly people can easily steer the robot. Numerous simulations and experimental results are conducted to verify the effectiveness of these proposed methods.
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