Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/62639
標題: 都市開放空間熱舒適性與使用者行為之觀察與探討
Observation and discussion of thermal comfort and the user behavior in urban open spaces
作者: 連筱琪
Lien, Hsiao-Chi
關鍵字: 熱舒適;thermal comfort;熱適應;行為模式;都市開放空間;thermal adaptation;behavior pattern;urban open space
出版社: 景觀與遊憩碩士學位學程
引用: (一)中文文獻 1.Albert J. Rutledge著、王求是、高峰譯 (1992),大眾行為與公園設計,台北,建築與文化出版社。 2.Jan Gehi著、陳秋伶譯 (1999),戶外空間的場所行為—公共空間使用之研究,台北,田園城市。 3.John Zeisel著、關華山譯 (1996),研究與設計—環境行為研究的工具,台北,田園城市。 4.Paul D. Spreiregen著、王濟昌譯 (1985),城市與鄉村建築,台北市,茂榮圖書。 5.Roger Trancik著、謝慶達譯 (1996),找尋失落的空間—都市設計理論,台北,創興出版社。 6.王小璘 (1998),都市開放空間及其活動型態之探討—以台中市都市開放空間為例,設計學報第3卷第1期。 7.成其琳 (1991),都市公園系統規劃設計準則之研究,台北,中央營建技術顧問研究社。 8.黃英哲 (2011),公園之遮蔽程度及熱環境對民眾參與行為之影響,碩士論文,虎尾科技大學休閒遊憩系碩士班。 9.黃定國 (1992),從休閒理論探討台北市市區開放空間設計指標及準則之研究,國立台北科技大學第25之2期學報。 10.黃耀榮 (1989),從環境行為研究談都市景觀美學—落建築色彩的特質與應用,建築師雜誌1989年6月刊。 11.陳明竺 (1991),台北市都市公共開放空間體系建立之研究,台北市政府工務局都市計畫處。 12.歐聖榮 (2007),休閒遊憩理論與實務,台北,前程文化出版。 13.龍宗彥 (2004),以型構與行為分析觀點探討都市公共開放空間系統之設計議題—以台北市信義計畫區為例,碩士論文,逢甲大學建築研究所。 14.郭瓊瑩主持 (1994),台北市都市開放空間系統之建立暨規劃原則之研究,台北市政府研究發展考核委員會。 15.謝伯昌 (1995),都市開放空間模式研究,碩士論文,成功大學建築研究所。 (二)外文文獻 1.Carmona M, Heath T, Oc T, Tiesdell S. (2003), Public places-urban spaces: the dimensions of urban design. Burlington: Architectural Press, Elsevier. 2.Chapin F. Stuart (1969), The Land Use Planning, Cambridge, Massachusettes. 3.de Dear RJ, Spagnolo J. (2003), A field study of thermal comfort in outdoor and semioutdoor environments in subtropical Sydney Australia. Building and Environment; 38:721–38. 4.Eliasson I, Knez I,Westerberg U, Thorsson S, Lindberg F. (2007), Climate and behavior in a Nordic city. Landscape and Urban Planning; 82:72–84. 5.Fanger PO. (1973), Conditions for thermal comfort-a review. Proceedings of Symposium on Thermal Comfort and Moderate Heat Stress (CIB W45), Garston, UK; pp. 3–15. 6.Hoppe P. (1999), The physiological equivalent temperature – a universal index for the biometeorological assessment of the thermal environment. International Journal of Biometeorology; 43:71–5. 7.Hwang RL, Lin TP. (2007), Thermal comfort requirements for occupants of semioutdoor and outdoor environments in hot-humid regions. Architectural Science Review; 50:60–7. 8.IPCC (2007), Climate Change 2007: Impact, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group Ⅱ to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 976pp. 9.Lin, T.P. (2009). Thermal perception, adaptation and attendance in a public square in hot and humid regions. Building and Environment, 44:2017-26. 10.Lin, T.P., K.T. Tsai, R.L. Hwang and A. Matzarakis (2012), Quantification of the effect of thermal indices and sky view factor on park attendance. Landscape and Urban Planning. 11.Nikolopoulou, M., N. Baker and K. Steemers (2001), Thermal comfort in outdoor urban spaces: understanding the human parameter. Solar Energy, 70:227-35. 12.Thorsson, S., M. Lindqvist and S. Lindqvist (2004), Thermal bioclimatic conditions and patterns of behaviour in an urban park in Goteborg, Sweden. International Journal of Biometeorology, 48:149-56. 13.Gulyas A, Unger J, Matzarakis A (2006), Assessment of the microclimatic and human comfort conditions in a complex urban environment: Modelling and measurements. Building and Environment 41:1713-22. 14.Hoppe P (1999), The physiological equivalent temperature - a universal index for the biometeorological assessment of the thermal environment. International Journal of Biometeorology 43:71-75. 15.Hwang RL, Lin TP, Matzarakis A (2011), Seasonal effects of urban street shading on long-term outdoor thermal comfort. Building and Environment 46:863-70. 16.Kevin Lynch (1972), The Openness of Open Space, Art of Enviroment, New York. 17.Lin TP (2009), Thermal perception, adaptation and attendance in a public square in hot and humid regions. Building and Environment 44:2017-26. 18.Lin TP, Matzarakis A, Hwang RL (2010), Shading effect on long-term outdoor thermal comfort. Building and Environment 45:213-21. 19.Lin TP, Tsai KT, Hwang RL, Matzarakis A (2012), Quantification of the effect of thermal indices and sky view factor on park attendance. Landscape and Urban Planning 107:137-46. 20.Lin TP, Tsai KT, Liao CC, Huang YC (2013), Effects of thermal comfort and adaptation on park attendance regarding different shading levels and activity types. Building and Environment 59:599-611. 21.Matzarakis A, Rutz F, Mayer H (2007), Modelling radiation fluxes in simple and complex environments - Application of the RayMan model. International Journal of Biometeorology 51:323-34. 22.Matzarakis A, Rutz F, Mayer H (2010), Modelling radiation fluxes in simple and complex environments: basics of the RayMan model. International Journal of Biometeorology 54:131-39. 23.Stanley B. Tankel (1969), The Importance of Open Space in The Urban Pattern in Cities and Space, The Johns Hoplsins, Baltimore and London. 24.VDI (1998), Methods for the human biometeorological evaluation of climate and air quality for the urban and regional planning. Part I: Climate. VDI guideline 3787. Part 2. Berlin: Beuth.
摘要: 
Recently, people spend their leisure time in urban open spaces because of the increasing requirements of recreational activities. Thermal environments are closely related to people’s perceptions and preferences and influence the use of outdoor spaces. Many previous studies have confirmed that the temperature directly affect the number of users to public spaces such as plaza and park. Consequently, comfortable thermal environments have become extremely important in urban open spaces.
This study aims to investigate the microscopic behavior pattern concept method, in order to understand the micro-climate on people''s recreation space, thermal comfort and adaptation behavior, for in Taichung, Taiwan''s National Museum of Natural Science model of DNA ladder outdoor garden sitting area microclimate physical environment measurements, records and photographic observation of the dynamic behavior of the user. Purpose is to discuss the open space in the city, if the sunshine and shadow areas exist, the different seasons, age, sex, and other recreational purposes, people open area for both the choice of location, residence time, and in the dynamic whether the activities to be associated with static or differences.
The results showed that people will prefer shade or shelter in the shadow of rest, are displayed in the hot and humid climate zones in Taiwan, people because of past experience and anticipated psychological climate, sunshine produce different degree of preference for people in temperate countries, illustrates the different climatic zones because of the thermal environment people experience, expectations and cognitive factors produce differences in thermal comfort and adaptability. Furthermore, the study of people and outdoor recreational behavior of the thermal environment relations in the sunshine at people more likely to have short-term dynamic behavior, on the contrary, in the shade and is able to have a long stay static behavior. The results are displayed in different seasons and sitting area, one might as physical comfort and psychological adaptation and produce different patterns of behavior, people with open space cool shade of preference, at high temperatures is more significant. Expected results of this study will be used as outdoor space planning and design future reference, in order to improve the utilization of urban open space.

  近年來由於對休閒遊憩需求的提升,民眾會在都市開放空間活動,戶外熱環境對人的感受與偏好有密切的關係,進而影響戶外空間的使用。過去許多有關熱舒適的研究證實了在戶外廣場或公園中,溫度直接影響公共空間的使用者參與人數,由此可知,舒適的熱環境對於都市開放空間就顯得極為重要。
  本研究透過動態微觀的行為模式觀查法,為了瞭解微氣候對人們遊憩空間、熱舒適與調適行為的影響,針對位於臺灣台中市之國立自然科學博物館戶外庭園的DNA模型階梯休憩區進行微氣候物理環境量測、攝影紀錄與使用者動態行為觀察。目的是為討論在都市開放空間中,若同時存在日照及陰影區域時,不同季節、年齡、性別、遊憩目的等,人們對於這兩種區域之休憩位置的選擇、停留的時間、以及從事的動態與靜態活動是否有所關聯或是差異性。
  研究結果發現民眾會優先選擇在樹蔭下或是有遮蔽的陰影處休憩,顯示在溼熱氣候區的台灣,民眾由於過去的氣候經驗和預期心理,產生對日照的偏好程度不同於溫帶國家的人們,說明了不同氣候區的人們會因為對於熱環境的經驗、期待與認知等因素,產生對熱舒適與適應性的差異。再者,探討民眾的休憩行為模式與戶外熱環境之關係,在日照處民眾較容易有短時間動態的行為,反之,在陰影處則能有靜態且長時間停留的行為。結果顯示在不同的季節與休憩區域,人們可能因為生理上的舒適度與心理的適應性而產生不同的行為模式,人們對開放空間的涼爽與遮蔭之偏好,在高溫情況下愈為顯著。本研究預期成果將可做為未來戶外空間規劃與設計之參考,以提高都市開放空間的使用率。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/62639
其他識別: U0005-2007201317400400
Appears in Collections:景觀與遊憩學士學位學程

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