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標題: 利用病原細菌產生的harpin蛋白誘導作物抗病性之可行性
Harpin Protein Induces Disease Resistance in Several Crops through the Systemic Acquired Resistance Pathway
作者: 黃秀珍
關鍵字: 植物保護類;應用研究
植物病原細菌在其寄主植物上會造成病害,並在非寄主植物上會誘導所謂的過敏性反應,過敏性反應是植物的抗病反應之一。遺傳學研究顯示,植物病原細菌具有一個約25 kb的hrp基因組,控制其在植物上的這兩種反應(病害或過敏性反應),而其中一個hrp基因產物為harpin蛋白,純化的蛋白注射入煙草植物可以引起過敏性反應,所引起的過敏性反應屬於系統性誘導抗病性(systemic acquired resistance, SAR)。分離自Erwinia amylovora的harpin蛋白施用於多種作物上可以誘導作物抵抗細菌、真菌及病毒所造成的病害,並有促進植物生長的效果,因此harpin蛋白被視為一種可被分解的,無毒性的生物農藥。本研究室曾以Pseudomonas syringae的harpin蛋白處理胡瓜及洋香瓜10天後,對於西瓜果斑病菌可表現很顯著的抗病性;另外曾以harpin的基因轉殖到煙草植株,在25℃-30℃時可降低約50%對青枯病菌的罹病性,由此可知P. syringae的harpin蛋白確有誘導植物抗病性的能力。因此在本計劃中欲利用來自病原細菌P. syringae及E. chrysanthemi的harpin蛋白,經表現及純化後施用於甜椒等茄科作物或具高經濟的作物上(如海芋、火鶴花),期望誘導這些作物之抗病性,如對於茄科作物的細菌性斑點病 (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vescatoria或X. vescatoria)、火鶴花的細菌性葉枯病(X. a. pv. dieffenbachiae)等,以評估使用harpin蛋白作為生物農藥之可行性。同時,計劃中也將利用系統性誘導抗病性的分子標記,進一步探討harpin蛋白誘導抗病性之可能機制。

The interaction of plant-pathogenic bacteria with resistant host cultivars or nonhost plants often leads to a rapid, localized defense response termed hypersensitive response (HR), during which cells immediately surrounding the site of infection rapidly die. There is accumulating evidence that HR is a programmed cell death process and can induce systemic acquired resistance (SAR) to disease, which persists for weeks to months and is effective against diverse pathogens including fungi, bacteria, and necrotizing viruses. Harpin proteins of Erwinia amylovora and Pseudomonas syringae encoded by hrpN and hrpZ gene, respectively, can elicit the HR and induce SAR in several plants, e.g. rice, tobacco, tomato, and cucumber etc. The aim of this proposal is to apply harpin proteins purified from Erwinia chrysanthemi and Pseudomonas syringae to induce systemic resistance to several important diseases (e.g. bacterial leaf spot or bacterial leaf blight) in solanaceous plants, calla lily, anthurium, and anoectochilus, and to elucidate the mechanism by which harpin protein induced resistance.
其他識別: 91農科-3.1.2-檢-B1(6)
Appears in Collections:生物科技學研究所

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