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A High Efficiency and Wide Range Dual-Mode Buck Converter
|關鍵字:||buck converter;降壓轉換器;PWM;PFM;power management;switching converter;脈波寬度調變;脈波頻率調變;電源管理;切換式轉換器||出版社:||電機工程學系所||引用:|| R. W. Erickson , D. Maksimovic, Fundamentals of Power Electronics, 2nd Ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001  Neil H. E. Weste, Kamran Eshraghian., Principles of CMOS VLSI Design 2nd Ed., Addison Wesley, 1993  M. Horowitz, T. Indermaur and R. Gonzafez, “Low-power digital design,” IEEE Symposium on Low Power Electronics, pp. 8-11, 1994.  Marty Brown, Power Supply Cookbook, 2nd Ed, Newnes, 2001.  Maxim, “Regulator Topologies for Battery-Powered Systems,” Application Note 660, Jan 31,2001.  T. Ikeda, “ThinkPad Low-Power Evolution,” 1995 IEEE Symposium on Low Power Electronics, Page 6-7  H. W. Whittington, B. W. Flynn, D. E. Macpherson, Switched Mode Power Supply: design and construction 2nd edition., Research Studues Press Ltd., 1997  N. Mohan, T. M. Undeland, W. P. Robbins, Power Electronics: Converters, Applications, and Design ,2nd Ed., New York, Wiley & Sons,1995.  D. O'Sullivan, B. Spruyt, , A. Crausaz,” PWM conductance control,” IEEE Power Electron. Spec. Conf. Record, pp.351-359, 1988  L. Dixon, ” Average current mode control of switching power supplies,” in Unitrode Power Supply Design Seminar Handbook (SEM-700), pp.5-1 to 5-14, Unitrode Corporation, MA, 1990.  R. Redl, N. O. Sokal,” Current-mode control, five different types, used with the three basic classes of power converters: small-signal ac and large-signal dc characterization, stability requirements, and implementation of practical circuits,” IEEE Power Electron. Spec. Conf. Record, pp. 771-785, 1985.  B. Carsten,” Current mode control for high frequency switch mode,” Power conversion and Intelligent Motion (PCIM), pp. 61-64, April 1986.  Leung, K.K.S.; Chung, H.S.H.; Hui, S.Y.R.,”Use of state trajectory prediction in hysteresis control for achieving fast transient response of the buck converter”, Proceedings of the 2003 International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Vol. 3 , pp. III-439 -III-442, May 2003  C. Deisch, “Simple switching control method changes power converter into a current source,” in Proc. IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conf., 1978, pp. 300-306.  S. Hsu, A. Brown, L. Rensink, R. Middlebrook, “ Modeling and analysis of switching Dc-to-Dc converters in constant frequency current programmed mode,” in Proc.  Marty Brown, Power Supply Cookbook, 2nd edition., Butterworth -Heinemann, 2001  Abraham I. Pressman, Switching power supply design, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1991  Wei-Lin Huang, A High-Efficiency CMOS DC-DC Switching Voltage Regulator for voltage Applications, M.S. thesis, National Cheng-Kung University, July , 2004.  Ridley, R.B., “A new, continuous-time model for current-mode control,” Power Electronics, IEEE Transaction on Volume 6, Issue 2, April 1991  Ridley, R.B., “A new continuous-time model for current-mode control with constant frequency, constant on-time, and constant off-time, in CCM and DCM,” Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 1990 . PESC '90 Record., 21st Annual IEEE 11-14 June 1990  C. F. Lee, P. K. T. Mok, “A monolithic current-mode dc-dc converter with on-chip current-sensing technique,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 39, pp. 3-14, Jan. 2004.  Dongsheng Ma, Wing-Hung Ki, Chi-Ying Tsui, P.K.T. Mok.,” Single-Inductor multiple-output switching converter with time-multiplexing control in discontinuous conduction mode,” Solid-State Circuit, IEEE Journal of volume 38, Issue 1, jan. 2003  Behzad Razavi, ”Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits,” Mc Graw Hill, June 2002  Sheng Jinggang, Chen Zhiliang, Shi Bingxue,” A 1V supply area effective CMOS Bandgap reference,” ASIC, 2003. Proceedings. 5th International Conference on 2003  Changsik Yoo, ”A CMOS buffer without short-circuit power consumption,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems ; Analog and Digital Signal Processing, Sept. 2000  Chi Yat Leung, P.K.T. Mok, Ka Nang Leung, “A 1.2V buck converter with a novel on-chip low-voltage current-sensing scheme,” Circuits and Systems, 2004. ISCAS ''04. Proceedings of the 2004 International Symposium on Volume 5, 23-26 May 2004 Page(s):V-824 - V-827 Vol.5||摘要:||
此直流對直流電壓轉換晶片是利用台灣積體電路製造股份有限公司所提供之CMOS 0.35μm 2P4M 3.3V/5V Mixed Signal製程所設計與實現。此晶片之面積大約為1.46 1.46mm²。工作電壓的範圍為2.4至3.6伏特，最佳情況之負載穩壓與線上穩壓分別為0.034 %/A和0.032%/V，而其他最重要之特性與效能將會在論文裡各個章節中描述。
The content of this thesis is to design and realize a DC to DC buck converter. The control methods of the converter are analyzed and designed including current mode pulse width modulation, voltage mode pulse width modulation, and pulse frequency modulation. It is suitable for electronic system applications and to prolong the usage time of batteries such as digital camera, PDA, mobile phone, etc. Wide range, high conversion efficiency, fast transient response, and automatically switching of the control method are the research topics of this thesis.
For switching buck converter, in order to enhance the efficiency range of the whole system, two control methods including pulse width modulation and pulse frequency modulation are adopted for heavy load and light load condition, respectively. This thesis proposed a novel control method selector, which can effectively and accurately switch over the suitable method of the situation at that time. In light load condition, needs the technique for reducing the unnecessary power consumption to improve the conversion efficiency. Moreover, the soft start circuit is designed to eliminate the excess large current at the start up of the converter that may damage the internal devices. When the two modes are switched appropriately, the conversion efficiency could be up to 90.5%.
The DC-DC voltage converter is designed and fabricated with TSMC CMOS 0.35μm 2P4M 3.3V/5V Mixed Signal technology. The chip size is about 1.46 1.46 mm². The range of the operation voltage is form 2.4V to 3.6V.In the best case, the load regulation and line regulation are 0.034 %/A and 0.032%/V separately. The others important characteristic and performance will be described in the following chapters of thesis.
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