Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/6538
標題: 運用於動態電壓調整之全整合型直流-直流轉換器
A Fully Integrated DC-DC Converter for Dynamic Voltage Scaling
作者: 洪育彬
Hong, Yu-Bin
關鍵字: buck;降壓;converter;dynamic voltage scaling;DVS;3D;integrated;直流轉換器;動態;電壓調節;整合
出版社: 電機工程學系所
引用: [1] J. Rosenfeld, E.G. Friedman, “On-Chip DC-DC Converters for Three-Dimensional ICs,” in Proc. IEEE Quality of Electronic Design, Apr. 2009, pp. 759-764. [2] 柯欣欣,“使用高精準度電流偵測技巧之高轉換效能同步互補式金氧半降壓切換式穩壓器,” 國立中央大學電機工程學系碩士論文,中華民國九十六年十月. [3] 宋自恆, “剖析可攜式電源管理電路的工作原理及IC介紹,”品佳股份有限公司 http://www.sacsys.com.tw [4] J Ni, Z. Hong, B.Y. Liu, “Improved on-chip components for integrated DC-DC converters in 0.13 µm CMOS,” in Proc. IEEE ESSCIRC, Sep. 2009, pp. 448-451. [5] 易明進,“全陶瓷輸出電容器在降壓型電源轉換器中穩定操作的分析與實現,”中華民國九十六年十月. [6] 唐經洲, “從3D IC/TSV 的不同名詞看3D IC 技術,” 零組件雜誌2010年5月. [7] 唐經洲, “垂直堆疊優勢多3D IC倒吃甘蔗,” 新通訊2010年 3月號109期《封面故事》. [8] J. Walker, D. Freeman, M. Stromberg, “SoC/SiP/3D IC各具優勢 TSV左右晶片演化成敗,” 新通訊2010年3月號109期《封面故事》. [9] 唐經洲, “從節能省碳談3D IC,” 工研院系統晶片科技中心3D IC系列, 2009年七月. [10] A. Hastings, The Art of Analog Layout Second Edition, [11] S. Xiao, W Qiu, G. Miller, T.X. Wu, I. Batarseh, “An active compensator scheme for dynamic voltage scaling of voltage regulators,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 24, no.1, pp. 307-311,Dec. 2009. [12] M. Barai, S. Sengupta, J. Biswas, “Digital controller for DVS-enabled DC-DC converterr” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 25, no.3, pp. 557-573, Mar. 2010. [13] A. Soto, A. Castro, P. Alou, J.A. Cobos, J. Uceda, A. Lotfi, “Analysis of the Buck converter for scaling the supply voltage of digital circuits,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 22, no.6, pp. 2432-2443, Nov. 2007. [14] F. Luo, D. Ma, “Design of digital tri-mode adaptive-output Buck–Boost power converter for power-efficient integrated systems,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no.6, pp. 2151-2160, June 2010. [15] K. Onizuka, K. Inagaki, H. Kawaguchi, M. Takamiya and T. Sakurai. “Stacked-chip implementation of on-chip Buck converter for distributed power supply system in SiPs,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol.42, no. 11, pp. 2404-2410, Nov. 2007. [16] J. Wibben, R Harjani, “A high-efficiency DC-DC converter using 2nH integrated inductors,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol.43, no. 4, pp. 844-854, Apr. 2008. [17] M. Wens, M. Steyaert, “A fully-integrated 130nm CMOS DC-DC step-down converter, regulated by a constant on/off-time control system,” in Proc. IEEE Conference on European Solid-State Circuits, Sep. 2008. pp. 62-65. [18] P. Upadhyaya, N. Shi, S. Bradburn, H.L. Hess, “A high power density 1.75 mm2 fully integrated closed-loop buck converter with varactor control scheme,” in Proc. IEEE Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, Feb. 2008. pp. 31-35. [19] S. S. Kudva, R. Harjani, “Fully integrated on-Chip DC-DC converter with a 450x output range,” in Proc. IEEE Conference on Custom Integrated Circuits, Sep. 2010. pp. 1-4. [20] F. Luo , D. Ma , “ An integrated switching DC–DC converter with dual-mode pulse-train/PWM control,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems Society, vol. 56, no.2, pp. 152-156, Feb. 2009. [21] Nvidia表示,雙核Tegra 2真正好,單核閃一邊, http://3c.msn.com.tw/View.aspx?ArticleID=54230
摘要: 
在科技爆發的年代中,電子產品也往輕薄短小為設計的理念,尤其是使用在生醫上的產品,如心律調節器、感測器等元件,非常強調體積與耗能,過去的電壓轉換器所使用的電容和電感,皆是外接式的元件,如此一來往往佔據了很大的體積,為了克服這個問題所以我們如果能將被動元件整合在單一晶片上的話,就能大大減少整個轉換器的尺寸。
而利用了GIPD(tMt Glass Substrate Integrated Passive Device Process)在玻璃基板上完成了電感與電容的製作,在Si基板(CMOS18)製作控制電路,使用Bump讓兩塊基板互相連接,利用3D技術完成了主動控制電路與被動元件之微型整合。
為了達到能整合於晶片尺寸的電容與電感,必須將它們縮小至奈米大小等級,因此也產生了一些挑戰,論文中使用了電壓控制的高速脈衝寬度調變(PWM)控制電路具有高速的暫態響應,並可隨著負載端所需要的不同電壓需求而有動態電壓調整(DVS),有效地增進系統與電池壽命。
電路架構由差值放大器、比較器、三角波產生器、非重疊電路(Non-overlap)、推動放大器和功率電晶體組成,首先經由回授電壓取得目前電壓值,與我們設定的Vref參考電壓進入差值放大器進行比對,獲得之輸出參考電壓與三角波產生器所產生之三角波訊號一同進入比較器後,可得到一PWM控制訊號,為了避免在頻繁的開關時,有大量的電流瞬間由PMOS流至NMOS造成能量的損耗,所以使用了非重疊電路來減少直接由電池到接地的漏電流產生,以提高效率。
本電路使用TSMC 0.18 um&GIPD製程,使用3D技術結合而成,電壓轉換為1.8V降至1.3~0.6V,最高電壓轉換效率為78.5%,最大負載電流為150mA。

In this era of technology explosion, the idea of designing electronic products are tending to compact size much more than before, particularly the biomedical products, such as pacemakers, sensors etc., which products emphasize the size and energy consumption. The capacitors and inductors in the voltage converters which we used before were both external components, and it could occupy a large amount of volume in this way. In order to overcome this problem, if we can integrate those passive components on a single chip, then it can greatly reduce the size of the converter.
The GIPD (tMt Glass Substrate Integrated Passive Device Process) can be used on a glass board to complete the production of the inductor and capacitor. The control circuit can be made on the Si board (CMOS18),and then use bump to connect two boards and utilize 3D technology to complete the micro-integration of the initiative control circuit and the passive components.
The size of capacitors and inductors must be reduced to nano-scale so that they can be integrated in one chip, but it also brought some challenges. The voltage control Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) used in this thesis is to control circuit with fast transient response. And the converter can be used for dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) applications that it can change with the different voltage requirements from the loading and increase the life of the batteries and the whole system effectively.
The circuit architecture is composed of error amplifier, comparator, triangle wave generator, non-overlap, digital-to-analog converter, buffer, power MOS. First, the feedback voltage and Vref are sent into the error amplifier for comparison. Then, the output voltage will be compared with a triangle wave to get a PWM control signal. To avoid energy consumption that caused by a large amount of current flowing from PMOS to NMOS while switch frequently, use the non-overlap circuit to reduce the leakage current directly from the battery to the ground and increase efficiency.
The circuit uses TSMC_0.18um & GIPD process, which are combined with 3D technology. The voltage conversion is from 1.8V down to 1.3 ~ 0.6V. The maximum voltage conversion efficiency is 78.5% and the maximum load current is 150mA.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/6538
其他識別: U0005-1608201116015100
Appears in Collections:電機工程學系所

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