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More Than Survival: Violence and Humanity in Michael Ondaatje''s Anil''s Ghost
|關鍵字:||麥可˙翁達傑;Michael Ondaatje;菩薩凝視的島嶼;斯里蘭卡;暴力;Sri Lanka;violence||出版社:||外國語文學系所||引用:||Works Cited Arendt, Hannah. The Origins of Totalitarianism. San Diego: Harcourt Brace, 1979. Print. Burton, A. "Archive of Bones: Anil''s Ghost and the Ends of History." The Journal of Commonwealth Literature 38.1 (2003): 39-56. Print. Campbell-Hall, Devon. "Dangerous Artisans: Anarchic Labour in Michael Ondaatje''s The English Patient and Anil''s Ghost and Arundhati Roy''s The God of Small Things." World Literature Written in English 40.1 (2002): 42-55. MLA International Bibliography. Web. 24 Jan. 2011. Cheah, Pheng. Inhuman Conditions: on Cosmopolitanism and Human Rights. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2006. Print. _ _ _ . "Interview with Pheng Cheah on Cosmopolitanism, Nationalism and Human Rights." Theory, Culture & Society. Web. 12 Aug. 2011. <http://theoryculturesociety.blogspot.com/2011/03/interview-with-pheng-cheah-on.html>. Chelva, Kanaganayakam. "In Defense of Anil''s Ghost." Ariel 37.1 (2006): 5-26. Print. Clough, Patricia Ticineto, and Jean O''Malley Halley. The Affective Turn: Theorizing the Social. Durham: Duke UP, 2007. Print. Derrickson, Teresa. "Will the ''Un-truth'' Set You Free? A Critical Look at Global Human Rights Discourse in Michael Ondaatje''s Anil''s Ghost." Lit: Literature Interpretation Theory 15.2 (2004): 131-52. MLA International Bibliography. Web. 24 Jan. 2011. Farrier, David. "Gesturing Torwards the Local: Intimate Histories in Anil''s Ghost." Journal of Postcolonial Writing 41.1 (2005): 83-93. Web. 24 Jan. 2011. Foucault, Michel. The Archaeology of Knowledge & The Discourse on Language. New York: Pantheon, 1972. Print. Foucault, Michel, James D. Faubion, and Paul Rabinow. Power. New York: New, 2000. Print. Gregg, Melissa, and Gregory J. Seigworth. The Affect Theory Reader. Durham: Duke UP. 2010. Print Harff, Barbara. "No Lessons Learned from the Holocaust? Assessing Risks of Genocide and Political Mass Murder since 1955." American Political Science Review 97. 1 (2003): 57-73. Print. Hardt, Michael. Foreword, The Affective Turn: Theorizing the Social. By Patricia Clough. Durham: Dike UP, 2007. Print. Higgins, Lesley, and Marie-Christine Leps. "The Politics of Life after Death: Ondaatje''s Ghost." Journal of Postcolonial Writing 45.2 (2009): 201-12. MLA International Bibliography. Web. 24 Jan. 2011. Mullins, Greg. "Labors of Literature and of Human Rights." Peace Review 20.1 (2008): 4-12. Print. Ondaatje, Michael. Running in the Family. New York: Vintage International, 1993. Print. _ _ _ . The English Patient a Novel. New York: Vintage, 1996. Print. _ _ _ . Anil''s Ghost. New York: Vintage, 2001. Print. _ _ _ . Vintage Ondaatje. New York: Vintage, 2004. Print. Ratti, Manav. "Michael Ondaatje''s Anil''s Ghost and the Aestheticization of Human Rights." ARIEL: A Review of International English Literature 35.1-2 (2004): 121-139. Web. 24 Jan. 2011. Roberts, Gillian. "Ethics and Healing: Hospital/ity and Anil''s Ghost." University of Toronto Quarterly: A Canadian Journal of the Humanities 76.3 (2007): 962-76. Sanghera, Sandeep. "Touching the Language of Citizenship in Ondaatje''s Anil''s Ghost." Comparative Cultural Studies and Michael Ondaatje''s Writing. 83-91. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue UP, 2005. Scanlan, Margaret. "Anil''s Ghost and Terrorism''s Time." Studies in the Novel 36.3 (2004): 304-317. Web. 24 Jan. 2011. "Slavoj Zizek-Bibliography/The Obscenity Of Human Rights/Lacan Dot Com." Splash 28. Web. 12 Aug. 2011. <http://www.lacan.com/zizviol.htm>. Sophia A. McClennen, and Joseph R. Slaughter. "Introducing Human Rights and Literary Forms; Or, The Vehicles and Vocabularies of Human Rights." Comparative Literature Studies 46.1 (2008): 1-19. Print. "Sri Lanka: Waging War, Waging Peace." Strategic Comments 1.8 (1995): 1-2. Print. Staels, Hilde. "A Poetic Encounter with Otherness: The Ethics of Affect in Michael Ondaatje''s Anil''s Ghost." University of Toronto Quarterly 76.3 (2007): 977-89. Print. Totosy, De Zepetnek, Steven. Comparative Cultural Studies and Michael Ondaatje''s Writing. West Lafayette: Purdue UP, 2005. Print. Wickramasinghe, Nira. "Sri Lanka in 2008: Waging War for Peace." Asian Survey 49.1 (2009): 59-65. Print.||摘要:||
麥可．翁達傑(Michael Ondaatje) 的斯里蘭卡戰爭小說《菩薩凝視的島嶼》是一本描寫內戰中主體遭遇極端戰爭暴力的困境以及相關的人權議題處理的作品。這本小說自出版以來廣受批評家從政治層面上，文化差異上，以及國際仲裁的合法性的/效力等諸多方面的討論。然而，現今的討論大多從東方/西方的二元對立，絕對的文化差異的角度處理這本小說中的人權的議題，對於主體行動的詮釋也因此受到影響及侷限。本論文嘗試另闢蹊徑，將討論的重點放在主要角色/主體在面對此內戰中噬人心神的社會暴力事原初如何應對的，而在彼此珍貴的情感交流，互相支持後形成的親密關係，又對他們對於外在環境，彼此，甚至是與自身的關係帶來怎樣深刻的改變。
本論文分成三部分。第一章借用全球化理論家Pheng Cheah具解構性的人權批評探討小說中的暴力以及人權議題。本文主張：人權不是人生既有的自然權，相反地人權論述常與全球政治經濟掛鉤並形塑人成為理性的且願意為人權犧牲奉獻的主體。接續第一章所提出的角色與社會背景的特質，第二及第三章探討主角原初以專業工作為中心最為對外在暴力回應的問題以及此種不直接的科學實驗化的態度如何透過彼此親密關係的建立得到修正。第二章著重於對於自由主義(liberalism)的批評還有主角建立親密關係(issue of intimacy)的困境，討論彼此原有的問題以及相遇觸發了改變的契機。第三章則運用情動理論(Theory of Affect) 分析主角(Anil 和 Sarath)在小說末段的具有倫理性的行動如何觸發了與其他角色深層親密並雙向交流關係(Pieta)最終產生了一種深刻的情動力影響自身也影響斯里蘭卡這片大地
Michael Ondaatje’s Sri Lankan civil war novel, Anil’s Ghost, concerning the inhuman situation in the civil war and the follow-up discussion on human rights and subjects, has been widely discussed from the perspectives of politics, cultural differences and international intervention. However, this thesis will discuss the issue of human rights on a global scale rather than the conventional West/East binary and return the focus to the subjects—the main characters, and their life journeys. In this thesis, I will probe into the issue of subject and social violence by first analyzing the discourse of human rights related to the novel. In this character-centered war novel, each major figure has their own personal issue, bias and passion to try to help with the seemingly helpless situation happening around them. However, as I want to elaborate that through the journey of Anil’s mission to uncover the identity of skeletal remains in an effort to accuse the government of state-sponsored killing, they all undergo the process of rethinking their ways of responding to the outside world. Eventually they form an alternative, intimate relationship both to each other and to themselves.
In chapter one and two, I apply Pheng Cheah’s destructive theory on the discourse of human rights. In the later part of the thesis, the focus is on how the main characters change their attitude toward the outside chaotic world and their own lives through their encounters produced within Anil’s journey and develop a more intimate relationship with others and themselves because of their encounters with each other. Through the discussion of intimacy in the novel, their encounters serve to the beginnings of their change in attitude. In Chapter three, the changes in chapter two are exposed as temporal and vulnerable. Here, the theory of affect is used to explain the alternative relations which are described as pietas are triggered by the major events that happen in the end of the novel. These alternative relations have the power to change main characters’ way of responding toward the outside world, their profession and their own lives.
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