Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/65514
標題: 森林空間動態模式之建立與應用
Development and Application of
作者: 李宣德
Lee,Hsuan-Te
關鍵字: 林木位置圖;Individual tree location map;競爭指數;地理資訊系統;孔隙模式;空間推估;competition index;Geographical Information System;gap model;spatial interpolation
出版社: 森林學系
摘要: 
The objectives of the paper are (1) to make the trees'' location map efficiently (2) to integrate the attribute data of trees and stands in field surveyed and theme map layers in spatial DBMS with GIS (3) to get the data of multi-scale data of different time for further spatial analysis. There are 3 spatial scales, which are individual tree, stand and landscape. Spatial analysis is used to get the data of distance, competition index and gaps effect on the tree''s growth. We try to estimate the growth and growing stock of China-fir by individual trees stand and landscape by gap model to simulate it. By this way, the spatial information of forest change could be provided for setting the strategies of forest management.
The summary of the study obtained is as follows:
1. To make the individual tree location map efficiently: GPS and laser surveyor are used to locate the permanent sampling plots (PSPs) and individual trees in the PSPs. Time and spatial codes in GIS integrated the data of spatial location and attribute. The integrated work makes data updating, modifying, retrieving and data applying more convenient, which could save tremendous time in sampling selection, and makes spatial analysis easily.
2.There are strong correction between competition index and tree''s growth. With the decrease of the competition index, the total increment of tree growth will increase. On the contrary, the more the competition indexes is, the slower the increment will be. The trees with more competitive will live shorter.
3. It's easy for us to select the being-thinned trees by the competition index in different scenarios with tree location maps and growth model in GIS. The scenarios could be used in forest research and management planning.
4.From the spatial databases of trees'' location map in GIS, we could find that the tree''s growing would be effected by the size of gaps in neighborhood. The index of gaps could be used to predict the dynamics of forest.
5.Four methods of interpolation were examined to determine suitability for analyzing degree-day, cumulative light intensity and volume of China-fir in Taiwan Island. The interpolation methods are Inverse-Distance Weighting, Spine, Kriging, and Trend. The following methods were selected for analysis because they got the best fit of the observed data: the consequence shows that the Kriging model for cumulative light intensity, the mono-multinomial Trend for degree-day interpolation and the Inverse-Distance Weighting method for volume of China-fir is fitting better.
6.Estimating the growing stock is one of the main objectives in forest inventory. The data of 42 China-fir sampling plots in 3rd forest inventory were used to estimate the growing stock by means of the three different levels, which are individual trees, stand, and landscape. The consequence shows that the total area of China-fir in national forest land is 22,412.32 ha, the growing stock of China-fir is 2.51 million cubic meter estimated from individual tree ( 113.38 m3/ha ), 2.54 million cubic meter estimated from stand ( 113.38 m3/ha ) and 2 million cubic meter estimated by spatial analysis ( 89.19 m3/ha ).
7.Because the area of forest in Taiwan is large. It is hard to tally. And forest is renewable resource, it is affected by environmental factors. Like topography, climate, soil etc. have great influence on forest. The other main contribution of this study is to estimate the stand growth by gap model with environmental factors. Spatial interpolation could be used to estimate the total growing stock of Whole Island easily.

本文研究旨在於(1)如何更有效率的繪製林木位置圖;(2)將野外調查所得林木屬性資料與具空間位置之林木位置圖整合、樣區位置圖與林分屬性資料結合,並與GIS所使用的座標系統配合,建立空間資料庫;(3) 並利用此不同時間歷程及單株、林分、地景三種不同空間尺度的資料來進行各種的空間分析。利用空間分析的方法,來探討距離、競爭與孔隙對林木生長的影響,並嘗試從單株、林分、地景三方面來推估全省杉木蓄積,並用孔隙模式來模擬往後之杉木生長蓄積,以提供森林經營具體之資訊,並將此資訊加以應用在森林經營決策上。
本文研究結果分述如下:
一、以即時衛星定位系統(GPS)配合雷射測量儀獲得樣區及樣木位置座標的資料並與樣區及林木屬性的調查資料,整合成資料庫,利用地理資訊系統來標示樣區位置圖及製作林木位置圖,將使生態系調查資料的更新、修改更為方便,使空間分析與取樣選擇之應用上成為可能。
二、由林木位置圖空間資料庫發現競爭指數與林木生長具有相關性,隨著競爭指數的減少,其總生長量有增加的趨勢,亦即競爭壓力愈大則競爭指數愈大,而該林木的生長所受競爭越大時,林木的成長也越緩慢,壽命也越短。
三、在林木位置圖空間資料庫中,以競爭指數為疏伐作業選木之依據,將疏伐木選擇方法具體量化,並配合林木位置圖的林木位置距離、分布格局的性質,推導簡易疏伐木的選擇原則,以進行疏伐試驗規畫。
四、由林木位置圖空間資料庫中發現林木之生長會受到其鄰近孔隙面積大小的影響,當孔隙面積越大,則其生長量潛能越大,至於孔隙之發生一般皆於最大連年生長量之後。
五、利用地理資訊系統之空間分析,由點資料推估面資料的功能,來推估有效積溫、累積日照量、杉木蓄積量等地景資料,這些推估方法包括距離反比權重法、曲線尺規法、克立金法和趨勢面法,並依資料種類對這些方法作評估。結果顯示累積日照量的推估以克立金法為佳;而蓄積量的推估則是採用距離反比權重法一次式來進行推估較妥當,而有效積溫則採用趨勢面一次多項式推估之。
六、森林資源調查中,推算林木蓄積為主要目標之一,利用全省資源調查中的42個杉木樣區資料,分別從單株、林分及地景三方面,進行杉木蓄積量之推估。結果顯示,在國有林地的杉木總面積為22,412.32公頃,利用單株推估蓄積量為251萬m3(單位面積為112.18m3/ha),而林分推估為2,54萬m3(單位面積為113.38m3/ha),至於空間推估則為200萬m3(單位面積為89.19m3/ha)。
七、由於台灣森林面積廣大,想要進行大規模的調查,實屬不易,而且森林為再生資源,且受環境因子如地形、氣象、土壤等都有相當的影響,若能掌握每年林木蓄積的變化量,則利用具生態、生長性質的孔隙模式來模擬林分未來的生長情形,並利用空間推估來推導全省總蓄積,將使吾人更能有效掌握森林生長變遷的資訊。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/65514
Appears in Collections:森林學系

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