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標題: 整合航測與GIS技術應用於潛在森林火災危險等級劃分之研究
Integration of Digital Photogrammetry and Geographic Information System Techniques on Potential Forest Fire Risk Rating
作者: 陳香如
關鍵字: Forest Fire;森林火災;Geographic Information System;Digital Photogrammetry;Analysis of Hierarchical Process (AHP);地理資訊系統;數值航測製圖;分析階層程序法
出版社: 森林學系
Avoiding and extinguishing forest fire is one of the important jobs in the area of forest protection. Under the concept of Prevention is better than cure, finding effective ways to avoid forest fire is essential to reduce and minimize the destruction and lost by forest fire. Therefore the basic fundamental effective ways to avoid forest fire in the area of building up database of all records of forest fires and classificated of potential forest fire risk rating.
This study is using Da-Pu working circle as the fields of study, integrated digital photogrammetry and GIS technique to build the geological database of forest fire;using the Analysis of Hierarchical Process (AHP) to construct the framework that reflect the causes of forest fire and calculations of the relative weight value of each causing factor. Furthermore, the techniques provided by GIS on the spatial overlapping method is employed to divide into sectors that the potential forest fire risk rating in Da-Pu working circle. The results are as followed:
1. During the years of 1994-1999, the major causes of forest fires in the Da-pu working circle are human-cause. Incendiarism is the main cause. Hunting and improper managing a fire follow as the major factors.
2. Building the geological database of forest fire is fundamental to Prevention of forest fire. The digital photogremmetry can provide the relating forest fire basic information needed for the study including vector, image and DTM these important inputs. Combining this data inputs and information is the basis for constructing the framework and related methods of this study.
3. Through the result of AHP method, the relative weighting value for the first layer of the analysis is 45.1% environment related factors and 54.9% human related factors. The second layer of analysis point out that improper management of camping fire taking the majority of the causes 33.0%. Followed by incendiarism (21.9%), weather related factors (20.3%), plantation related (12.3%), topographic (8.0%) and soil related factors (4.5%). The above numbers all indicating that human-cause is the main cause of forest fire.
4. this study, using spatial overlapping analytical method in the GIS together with the relative weight value given by the AHP method, calculate and analyze various graphs against and overlapping each other, the result list and categorize the potential risk rating of forest fires happening into five levels including: Slight danger level(4.61%);Cautious level (47.00%);Alarming level (33.04%); Dangerous level (13.59%)and Extremely dangerous level (1.76%).
5. The levels of potential forest fires happening categorized in this study have been proven right against the past six years (1994-1999) records of forest fire. Both the records and the result of the study indicate that 94% of time when an area is in the sector of Alarming level, Dangerous level and extremely dangerous level forest fire had happened. Not only has this proven the validity of this study but more so in the value of every day use.
6. The geological information system has the functions of spatial analysis, combining graphs and information gathered. It will provide more precise detailed information needed in the area of forest fire management in the future. If combined with more quantitative information in the structure, it will further enhance the effectiveness of the system.
This study has already categorized the potential levels in the Da-Pu working circle using digital photogrammetry, GIS technique and AHP method. The result can be provided as reference for the potential forest fire risk rating in Da-Pu working circle. However as for the building of the forest fire records database is a long-term process, it need further in depth investigation.

一、 民國83-88年間,大埔事業區森林火災發生的原因多屬人為因子,其中以蓄意縱火為主要原因,其次為狩獵,再其次為引火不慎。
二、 森林火災地理資料庫的建立,為防範森林火災的基礎。而數值航測製圖因可提供森林火災相關的基本資料,包括向量圖形、影像及DTM等重要空間資訊,此亦為本研究建構相關模式的基礎資料。
三、 經由AHP法問卷分析結果,第一階層環境因素之相對權重值為45.1%,而人為因素則佔54.9%。第二階層之權重值,以使用不慎(33.0%)所佔權重最高,其次依序是蓄意方面(21.9%),氣候方面(20.3%)、植物方面(12.3%)、地形方面(8.0%)、土壤方面(4.5%)。顯示人為因素為造成森林火災的主因。
四、 本研究應用GIS軟體之空間套疊分析功能,配合AHP法所求得之相對權重,進行計算及多圖層套疊分析,將潛在森林火災危險等級劃分為五級,包括I:輕微級(4.61%)、II:注意級(47.00%)、III:警告級(33.04%)、IV:危險級(13.59%)、V:極危險級(1.76%)。
五、 本研究所建立之潛在森林火災危險等級,經近六年(83-88年)的森林火災資料驗證結果,顯示在第III級(含)以上之發生機率達94%,可證實本模式除理論基礎外,更具有實用價值。
六、 地理資訊系統因具有空間分析及整合圖形與屬性資料的功能,可提供精確、詳實的資料,在未來森林火災管理上,如整合更豐富的資料結構,將可提高其效用。
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