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標題: 森 林 生 態 系 經 營 模 式 之 建 構-以惠蓀林場紅檜人工林與闊葉樹次生林為例
Developing the Model of Forest Ecosystem Management- Illustration of the Taiwan Red Cypress Plantation and Secondary Broadleaf Forest at Hue-Sun Forest Station
作者: 蔡尚悳
Tsai, Shung-Der
關鍵字: Ecosystem management;生態系經營;Model;Taiwan Red Cypress Plantation;Secondary Broadleaf Forest;Diversity index;Information index;energy;emergy;模式;紅檜人工林;闊葉樹次生林;歧異度指數;訊息指數;能量;能值
出版社: 森林學系
試區與林道之絕對座標透過差分全球衛星定位方式加以定位,並將造林台帳之空間與屬性資料建構於地理資訊系統。試區中之所有土樣皆屬極酸性的範圍,且紅檜人工林之淺層土壤多有灰化土分布。試區中紅檜之直徑級皆在40 cm以內,又以胸徑10-25 cm者居多;且紅檜之分叉率極高(概為50 %以上),而隨分叉數愈多,其單株平均胸徑、樹高與材積愈少,又已有如香桂等闊葉樹種入侵,故以胸高斷面積為介量,實施30、50與60 %三種疏伐度之疏伐試驗,並混植牛樟、香楠與烏心石等樹種。

It had long been recognized that forests provided more than timber, and should be management as multiple purpose in 1960s. For maintaining the diversity and integrity of forest ecosystem, in 1992 USDA Forest Service dropped the new perspectives label as it adopted ecosystem management as its management paradigm. To know how to carry out the conception of ecological management, experiments were executing in the Taiwan Red Cypress (Chamaecyparis formosensis) plantation. The site was located at the plantation No.242 and No.248 in 4th and 5th compartment of Hue-Sun Forest Station of National Chung Hsing University, and the broadleaf secondary forest, as control site, was neighboring the No.248 plantation. In the April, July and October 1998, and January, April and July 1999, fundamental information as baseline for ecological management and environmental monitoring was collected. Which included surveying with vegetation, animals, soil properties of physics and chemistry, and the factors of microclimate.
Differential global positioning system (DGPS) was used to get the coordinate data of plots and road. Furthermore, linking the spatial and attribute data of plantation in geographic information system (GIS). According to the analysis of the soil, it showed the pH was in the range of extreme acid, and much podzol distributed in the site.
The diameter degree of Taiwan Red Cypress was less than 40 cm, and most of were 10 to 25 cm in the Taiwan Red Cypress plantation. The rate of bifurcation of Taiwan Red Cypress were more than 50 %, and the more bifurcation, the average diameter, height and volume per tree would be lower. Besides, some broadleaf trees had invaded into the Taiwan Red Cypress plantation, i.e., Cinnamomum randaiense. So accomplishing the thinning treatment of 30, 50 and 60 % thinning degree by the parameter diameter basal area, and mixture planting Cinnamomum kanahirai, Machilus Zuihoensis and Michelia compressa.
In order to evaluate and construct the multi-storied forest with productivity and diversity, enhanced the adaptability of environmental stress, balanced between the utility of forest resource and the ecological conservation, and reached the goals of ecosystem management with sustainability and integrity. So choosing the soil properties of L-asparaginase activity, microbial biomass-N, pH, organic matter, total N, ratio of C and N, CEC, and the factors of microclimate (temperature and relative light intensity) be environmental indicators. Biological indicators included the 39 plants, i.e. Taiwan Red Cypress, Schima superba, Taiwania cryptomerioides and Cinnamomum randaiense. Besides, carnivorous insects of Apotomopterus asuteri and Culicidae, omnivorous insect of Formicidae, phytophagous insects of Cicadellidae and Cecidomyiidae, detritivorous insects of Silphidae, Calliphoridae, Scatopsidae and Poduridae, and aboveground animals of primary carnivore and detritivorous-phytophage would be monitoring candidacy species. Furthermore, community indicators included species abundance indices and models. Ecosystem diversity (ED), total system throughput (TST), system ascendancy (A) and system overhead (L) could be ecosystem indicators. Besides, economic indicators were emergy and emergy value.
For realizing the structure and function of forest ecosystem, and making the simulating ecological scenarios would be more close to the true state of ecosystem, it had to unite the multidiscipline sub-projects, and to achieve the sufficient integrated forest inventory and monitoring. So it was needed to correct the ecological models according to enhance the research of biomass, production and consumption of each taxonomic group, and surveying the litter and animal detritus. The purpose of this study was via the Taiwan Red Cypress plantation and the broadleaf secondary forest to construct the theoretic model of ecosystem management, and provided the basis to apply in landscape in the future.
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