Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Manufacture of Bamboo Charcoals and Vinegars from Different Bamboos and Carbonaceous Materials Applied on the Improvement of Water Qualities
|關鍵字:||Bamboo charcoal;竹炭;Bamboo vinegar;Activated carbon;Water quality;竹醋液;活性碳;水質||出版社:||森林學系所||摘要:||
本研究是將國產六大竹種包括桂竹、麻竹、綠竹、莿竹、孟宗竹及長枝竹，以機械窯在升溫速率0.42℃/min下，升溫至600℃，並持溫1 hr將竹材炭化，探討竹炭與竹醋液基本性質。試驗結果得知，六種竹炭之孔隙度以長枝竹最低僅67.10%，莿竹孔隙度最高達86.71%；所有竹炭均呈鹼性，以莿竹鹼性最高，pH值達9.50，而麻竹pH值較低為7.04；以麻竹之藍牟爾比表面積最高為496.9 m2/g，而長枝竹最低僅179.1 m2/g。六種竹醋液有機成分均以酸性物質含量最多，酚類物質最少，中性物質次之；酸性物質均以醋酸與丙酸為主；酚類物質主要為2-甲氧基酚、酚及2,6-二甲氧基酚；中性物質主要以糠醛及3-糠醛、四氫-2-(甲氧基甲基)-呋喃、糠醇等之呋喃類物質為主。整體而言，六種竹炭之酸鹼值、孔隙度、比表面積等基本性質仍有差異，使用時宜適材適所，而竹醋液之主要酸性物質、酚類物質及中性物質，成分相近可合併使用。
將孟宗竹在升溫速率0.42℃/min分別炭化至500、700及900℃，並持溫1 hr，共得3種竹炭，再將500℃炭化之竹炭依不同活化時間(30、60及90 min)及不同活化溫度(700、900及1000℃)製成各種活性碳，除比較各種碳材之基本性質，並分析其自來水及地下水之水質處理效果；試驗結果顯示，以孟宗竹炭或竹活性碳處理均可使水質具鹼性，並可溶入高濃度鉀離子，並可使水分子團更細緻化，以900℃以上活化之竹活性碳才可將水中鈣及鎂離子去除，使硬水或中水變成軟水，竹活性碳對水質較差之地下水的改善效果優於水質較佳之自來水，整體而言，以炭化溫度500℃竹炭且在900℃活化30 min、碳量20 g、水量300 mL浸漬10 min之竹活性碳對水質改善效果最佳，且可重複使用10循環左右。
又將麻竹在升溫速率0.42℃/min下升溫至600℃製成麻竹炭及在900℃下分別活化30、60及90 min製成活性碳，除分析碳材基本性質並應用於觀賞水族箱水質改善之效果；試驗結果發現，養殖水質之朱文錦活存率以900℃活化60 min活性碳最高可達67％，而市售活性碳僅50％，但依鄧肯氏分析結果，各種碳材及空白組間均無顯著差異；魚體重量增加率以炭化600℃之竹炭及活化60 min之活性碳兩者增加最多，分別為22％及20％。但整體而言，以麻竹碳材處理養殖水質，並無顯著特別的改善效果。
In this study, the fundamental properties of bamboo charcoals and vinegars, made from domestic six kinds of bamboo species including makino bamboo, ma bamboo, green bamboo, thorny bamboo, moso bamboo, and long-branch bamboo, using a laboratory-scale steel kiln at a heating rate of charcoalization of 0.42℃/min for a temperature of 600℃ and holding 1 hr, were examined. The results indicated that among the bamboo charcoals, the thorny bamboo charcoal had the highest porosity of 86.71% and the long-branch bamboo had the lowest one of 67.10%. All bamboo charcoals exhibited alkalinity; the thorny bamboo showed the highest pH of 9.50, and the ma bamboo had the lowest one of 7.04. Moso bamboo charcoal had the highest Langmuir surface area of 496.9 m2/g, and the long-branch bamboo had the lowest one of 179.1％. The major organic compositions of the six kind bamboo vinegars were acidic components, followed by neutral components and phenolic components. The acetic acid and propanoic acid of the acidic components, 2-methoxy-phenol, phenol, and 2,6-dimethoxy-phenol of phenolic components, and 2-furancarboxaldehyde, 3-furaldehyde, tetrahydro-2-(methoxymethyl)-furan, and 2-furanmethanol of neutral components were the main compounds of each fraction, respectively. Generally speaking, the fundamental properties of charcoals such as pH value, porosity, and surface area have several differences between the six kind bamboo charcoals, therefore, the bamboo charcoal must be adapted to its special utilization. However, these bamboo vinegars have similar major acidic components, neutral components, and phenolic components, it is suggested that the bamboo vinegars could be combined with each other for utilization.
Three kinds of moso bamboo charcoals were obtained at a heating rate of charcoalization of 0.42℃/min for a temperature of 500﹐700﹐and 900℃﹐respectively﹐and holding time of 1 hr. The activated carbons made from moso bamboo charcoal of 500℃ with different activation times (30﹐60﹐and 90 min) and different activation temperatures(700﹐900﹐and 1000℃), respectively. The fundamental properties of the carbonaceous material and the improved efficiency of tap and ground drinking water by treated with the moso bamboo charcoal and activated carbon were examined. The results showed that the drinking water possessed more alkalinity, more concentration K+ were soluble in water, and smaller water clusters were obtained after moso bamboo charcoal or bamboo activated carbon treatments. The Ca2+ and Mg2+ could be removed only by treated with activated carbon with activation temperature over 900℃, i.e. hard water or moderately hard water would be become to a soft water. Furthermore, the improved efficiency of bamboo activated carbon treatments for poor quality of ground water was better than of that the superior quality of tap water. It is concluded that the activated carbon prepared from 500℃ bamboo charcoal and activated at 900℃ for 30 min and the dosage of 20 g dipping in 300 mL water for 10 min, had the best improved efficiency of water quality. In addition, the efficiency of the activated carbon could be repeated used for about 10 cycles.
The ma bamboo charcoal was obtained by a heating rate of charcoalization at 0.42℃/min at 600℃ and holding 1 hr and three kinds of activated carbons were manufactured by activated ma bamboo charcoal at 900℃ for 30, 60 and 90 min, respectively. The fundamental properties of the carbonaceous materials and the improved efficiency of cultured water after treated with the ma bamboo charcoal and activated carbon were examined. The results indicated that the survival percentage of Carassius auratus had the highest of 67％ by the activated carbon prepared at 900℃ for 60 min treatment and the commercial activated carbon treatment had the lowest one of 50％. However, according to Duncan's multiple range test, the survival percentage of Carassius auratus had no significant difference among the carbonaceous materials. The 600℃ bamboo charcoal and activated carbon with activation time of 60 min had the highest increased in fish body weight of 22％ and 20％, respectively. Generally speaking, the cultured water quality had no significant improvement after the ma bamboo charcoal and activated carbon treatment.
|Appears in Collections:||森林學系|
Show full item record
TAIR Related Article
Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.