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Effects of Heating Rates on Fundamental Properties of Vinegar during Bamboo Carbonization and Its Application on Inhibit Plant Pathogenic Bacteria
|關鍵字:||Bamboo vinegar;竹醋液;Carbonization heating rate;Plant pathogenic bacteria;Chitosan;Deacetylation;炭化升溫速率;植物病原細菌;幾丁聚醣;去乙醯度||出版社:||森林學系||摘要:||
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of heating rates on the fundamental properties of vinegar during bamboo carbonization. Applications of bamboo vinegars on inhibit plant pathogenic bacteria, and the synergism of bamboo vinegar combined with chitosan a bacteriostatic action was also studied. Thirty-two kinds of moso bamboo vinegar were collected using a steel kiln under various conditions of temperature range from 150~200 ℃, 200~250 ℃, 250~300 ℃, 300~350 ℃, 350~400 ℃, 400~450 ℃, 450~500 ℃, and from 150~500 ℃ at heating rates of 25, 50, 75, and 100 ℃/hr, respectively. The fundamental properties including total yields, color, pH, specific gravity, organic acid content, and soluble tar content in bamboo vinegars were examined. The results showed that the yields of bamboo vinegars was about 10 ％, and the yields decreased with increasing of heating rate. More than 77 ％ of total bamboo vinegars were collected at the temperature range from 150~300 ℃. The bamboo vinegars collected from 250~300 ℃ and 150~500 ℃ had the darkest color, and from 200~250 ℃ had the lowest pH, and from 250~300 ℃ had the highest amount of organic acid and soluble tar content. However, the specific gravity of bamboo vinegars increased with increasing the collected temperature. In addition, the organic constituents of bamboo vinegars by GC-MS analysis showed that major products in bamboo vinegars were acid components in all treatments, and the amount of acid components decreased with increasing the heating rate. However, the neutral components and the phenol components increased and became more complicated in their chemical structures with increasing the heating rate. Moreover, the results of GC-MS analysis reviewed that the major constituent in acid components was acetic acid, and the neutral components were cyclopentanol and butyrolactone, and phenol components were 2,6-dimethoxy-phenol and phenol.
In order to understand the antibacterial activity of bamboo vinegars, five plant pathogenic bacteria including bacterial wilt of tomato, bacterial blight of rice, black rot of crucifers, bacterial spot of carambola, and bacterial blotch of cucurbits were investigated by disc agar diffusion test method and dilution method. The results showed that bamboo vinegars could effectively inhibit the grown of plant pathogenic bacteria. Consideration of the percentage of inhibition and yield of bamboo vinegars, the best manufacturing conditions of bamboo vinegars against the growth of plant pathogenic bacteria were the temperature range of 150~500 ℃ at heating rates of 25 and 50 ℃/hr, or the collecting temperature over 250 ℃ at heating rates of 75 and 100 ℃/hr. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of bamboo vinegars against plant pathogenic bacteria were 500~700 times dilution of original vinegar which collected from 150~500 ℃ at heating rate of 25 ℃/hr. Meanwhile, the synergy effect of chitosan and bamboo vinegar on inhibit the grown of plant pathogenic bacteria was also observed, better results were shown in the mixtures of bamboo vinegars and higher degree of deacetylation and higher concentration of chitosan.
本研究係探討不同炭化升溫速率和不同收集溫度範圍竹醋液之基本性質，並分析竹醋液對抑制植物病原細菌之效果，及幾丁聚醣和竹醋液抑菌之協同作用。將孟宗竹以機械窯依25、50、75和100 ℃/hr等4種炭化升溫速率炭化，分段收集150~200 ℃、200~250 ℃、250~300 ℃、300~350 ℃、350~400 ℃、400~450 ℃及450~500 ℃等溫度範圍與不分溫度範圍150~500 ℃一次收集之32種竹醋液，分別探討其收率、顏色、pH值、比重、有機酸含量、溶解焦油含量及組成分等基本性質。試驗結果得知，竹醋液總收率隨升溫速率上升而下降，約佔10 ％左右，主要收集之百分率集中在150~300 ℃，可達總收率之77 ％以上；不論在何種炭化升溫速率下，竹醋液之顏色以分段收集之250~300 ℃及一次收集之150~500 ℃者為最深，pH值則以200~250 ℃者最低，比重隨收集溫度範圍上升而增加，有機酸和溶解焦油含量以250~300 ℃者為最多。以氣相層析-質譜儀（GC-MS）分析得知，竹醋液有機成分，不論何種炭化升溫速率之各種溫度範圍均以acetic acid（醋酸）為主之酸性物質最多，隨著升溫速率上升酸性物質含量明顯減少，而中性物質與酚類物質含量卻增加，種類亦更多元，又中性物質主要成分為環戊醇（cyclopentanol）和丁酸內酯（butyrolactone），而酚類物質以2,6-雙甲氧基酚（2,6-dimethoxy-phenol）和酚（phenol）為主。
採用瓊脂紙錠擴散試驗法和稀釋試驗法分析竹醋液抑制植物病原細菌（包括番茄青枯病菌、水稻白葉枯病菌、十字花科黑腐病菌、楊桃細菌性斑點病菌和瓜類細菌性果斑病菌系5種）之效能，由試驗結果得知，竹醋液可有效抑制植物病原細菌之生長，綜合抑菌率及竹醋液的收率，建議採用升溫速率25和50 ℃/hr之150~500 ℃一次收集者，或升溫速率75和100 ℃/hr於250 ℃以後溫度收集之竹醋液，對抑制植物病原細菌最具效果。又以升溫速率25 ℃/hr之一次收集竹醋液為例，其最低抑制濃度約為500~700倍竹醋液稀釋液至之間。又竹醋液中添加幾丁聚醣可以顯著抑制番茄青枯病原細菌，且隨其去乙醯度及其濃度之增加，抑菌效果愈佳
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