Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/65635
標題: 遊樂景觀之概念建構及設計原則
The concepts&Principles of Recreational Landscape Architecture
作者: 楊志義
Yang, YHIH-I
關鍵字: Recreational Landscape Architecture;遊樂景觀;forest aesthetics;sociopsychology;neurophysioloy;森林美學;遊樂社會心理學;神經生理學
出版社: 森林學系
摘要: 
The purpose of this study is to discuss the principles,
practices, and philosophies of recreational landscape
architecture. The discussion concentrates on the design of a
pleasurable, flowing, and beautiful landscape based upon the
recreation neurophysioloy and sociopsychology as well as the
forest aesthetics.
The methods are : (1) to review the literature of previous
research focusing on the landscape analysis , the recreation
opportunity provision, the recreation influence of creative
growth, and the design of landscapes; (2) to analyze and
synthesize the concepts of recreational landscapes; (3) to
examine the recreation experience, or the effects of visitors
tested by multidisciplinary and a variety of statistic
simulations and tests.
The findings are as following:
1. Recreational landscapes are both resource-oriented and user-
oriented products judged by visitors* perception. To manipulate
landscape beauty, one can use the principles developed from
forest aesthetics, and further to enhance visitors* creativity
and pleasure, one can also use the practices developed form
recreation neurophysiology and sociopsychology.
2. The flow chart of forest landscape architecture based upon
the concepts of recreational landscape is depicted in the
diagram below.
3. The whole forest recreation area may be divided into a
series of subareas which provide a variety of recreation
opportunities. Each subarea follows its own management methods
to enhance its landscape as most as possible. In general, the
macro-landscape management concentrates on the form, color, and
texture of the whole recreation area, whereas the micro-
landscape management concentrates on the peaceful environment
for recreation.
4. The primary consideration of the forest landscape design is
to ensure that the elements of landscape beauty can meet well
with the criteria of beauty perception. The secondary
consideration is then to use the perception concepts to further
enhance landscape beauty.
5. The macro-landscape attracts visitors with its novelty and
intensity, and the micro-landscape then attracts visitors with
its complexity and challenge. The facilities with safety and
convenience can enhance visitors* abilities to experience
leisure. Interpretative services with well designed visiting
direction and information can let visitors* further enjoy the
intellectual amusement.
6. Planning with open space in the forest and water areas can
provide recreation opportunities which is embedded in the
playfield with the full of phytoncid and negative ions. The
pleasurable walks and the exercise supplies can also facilitate
visitors with the physical relaxation.
7. The design combined with sensory, sporty, and visceral
stimulus, such as with the wild-wife preserves, hiking walks,
and adventure activities , can further create pleasant
experiences in the forest recreation areas .
8. The causes of bad recreation experience are obtained from
the poor landscapes, the dangerous viewing environments, less
sensory and intellectual stimulus and the monotonous recreation
opportunities.
9. It is important to select adequate operation approaches to
the cutting, thinning, and prunning so to improve the forms and
textures of forest landscapes. The operations must maintain the
small cutting areas, green belts, and the ecological
silviculture, and also respect the visitors opinions.
10. The forest artistic beauty is not been well presented in
Taiwan. The local history, the arts and crafts activities, as
will as the fairy and fantastic stories or plays are all good
subjects for embedding into the recreation.
11. Transitional or stationary guidewalks are active
interpretative services which can provide emotional and
rational experiences to facilitate visitors* creative growth.
12. Visitors* physical and mental needs should be the primary
consideration. The recreational and educational opportunities
can serve as the products for mental needs, the food and
beverage, the lodging and resting places can serve as products
for physical needs. These service buildings should be well
designed to present the special feature of local area, and to
harmonize with the natural environment of the whole recreation
area.

本研究最主要的目的就是整合基於森林美學、遊樂社會心理學及神經生理
學等3個學門各自發展的森林景觀設計原則理論概念,希望能克服不同學
門中存在已久的盲點及某些難以解決的課題,並建立真正為遊樂目的而設
計的森林景觀,亦可謂之遊樂景觀之設計原則,以供森林遊樂理論及實務
界參考。
所應用的方法為先蒐集整理專家學者們在景觀分析、遊樂機會提供、遊樂
益智及景觀設計等方面的理論,找出獨立及相類似的論點基礎,歸納分析
並合成建構遊樂景觀之概念,再從此概念分別試驗設計考驗遊客在混合之
學門的理論原則下所得遊樂體驗的效果。調查結果並採用SPSS/PC+電腦
統計軟體進行適合度考驗卡方分析、單因子變方分析、鄧肯氏多變域分析
、T測驗、交叉分析卡方關連性考驗及變異數同質性考驗,希望能夠了解
調查結果之信度、關連性及差異性。
調查結果經驗證討論後所得之結論如次:
一、基於遊樂景觀之概念建構所得森林景觀設計流程如次:
回 饋




遊樂神經生理學








美的創造

森 森 藝 環境自由
美 身 遊
遊 術 遊樂
遊 遊 心 客
林 投入 林 設計 美 包裝 遊 新奇 提供
感 產生 健 形成 偏
─→ ─→ ─→ 憩 複雜 ←→
─→ 康 ─→ 好
美 區 樂 自 組合 機 主題 遊客
客 樂 客 及
然 會 挑戰 參與
趣 創 遊
學 資 美
感 造 客
景 心理自由
反 影 力 需
源 社
盡 IQ 要
會 興 或
觀 美
應 感 響 CQ

現 實 美






遊樂社會心理學





回 饋



供 給
需 求


二、驗證結果顯示整體印象之美質評級(3.24)與各項美質之平均評
級(3.29)非常接近,故可依景觀調查記錄將森林遊樂區劃分為各不同特色
小區,每小區再依規劃提供之遊憩機會類別而做大景觀或微景觀作業,大
景觀作業著重在「形」、「色」、「質」要素的美感增加,微景觀作業著
重在平和休憩環境(乾淨、空氣流通、明亮、清幽)的塑造,每個小區並可
按照使用強度的不同用各種專業手法(造園、園林、森林)做景觀營造。
三、森林景觀的組成元素(審美客體)之美質要素是否符合美的標準(審美
意識)是景觀設計的首要考量,強化遊客(審美主體)美感的設計概念之運
用則是次要考量因子,係針對已具美感的部分為之,不符合美的標準所做
強化手法,祗能凸顯審美客體不美的屬性。
四、由驗證結果顯示大景觀的新奇性、強化性(如具獨特性景觀、焦點景
觀、特徵景觀,有74%的遊客選擇)及微景觀的多樣性、複雜性、挑戰性(
如直線、曲線、有機美景觀,有70%的遊客選擇)均是讓遊客喜愛的森林景
觀設計,考量遊客安全性、便利性的設施設計(審美期待與關照考量人體
尺度、益處,x2=32大於理論值符合假說)均可增加遊客體驗休閒的能力;
增加導引性、知識性的單、雙向(探索性)解說服務的設計(創造知覺及意
識的美),並能擴大遊客的智識領域增長創造力。
五、從神經生理反應驗證結果顯示增加五感刺激能使審美主體獲得顯著
的美感提昇美感評級從(4.1375→4.7781),故森林景觀設計時在茂密之森
林區,水體所在(瀑布、溪流)之處考量設置遊客活動之開放空間,也就是
提供遊客在充滿芬多精、陰離子的場所獲得更滿意遊樂體驗,另外林間步
道、體能活動器材的設計亦有助於遊客獲得生理的快適。
六、從神經生理反應驗證結果顯示增加體神精及自主神經之刺激有助於
美感提昇美感評級從(4.1375→4.6937),故森林景觀設計時考量增加五種
感官、運動器官及內臟器官的刺激,如野生動物的引入(保育),登山步道
的設計規劃,賞景涼亭內增設點心吧檯及探險性、挑戰性活動的導入,對
於森林遊樂區整體的樂趣體驗能造成明顯增強結果。
七、從社會心理學原則之驗證結果顯示森林遊樂區內劣質的景觀、危險
的賞景環境,缺少感官及意識刺激的景觀設計、單調的遊樂機會及不考量
遊客人體尺度及利益的設計,均是造成森林遊樂區遊樂體驗品質低劣的主
因。
八、依據森林美學的景觀設計原則,伐採及撫育作業的方式對於改善森
林景觀的「形」、「質」很重要,具體的做法有縮小伐區面積、營造複層
林、美的帶狀、美的區劃、保護樹帶等作業及造林時生態考量、選木與重
視使用者意見(營業場所調查)。
九、從森林遊樂政策面及過去學術界所倡導的景觀設計資料顯示,在表
現人類理想創意的森林藝術美是目前國內森林遊樂區較欠缺的部分,而由
歐、美、日等國外經驗得知民俗、童話、奇幻故事、藝文活動的導入均可
為之。
十、具有探索性的教育益智功能的遊樂目標或內容設計,在國內森林遊
樂區仍很缺乏,規劃設計定點或動線的雙向解說服務設施,能增加知性體
驗(驗證結果 t-value=7.84**),讓森林遊樂區也可像「森林大學」般成
為培養遊客創造力的場所。
十一、依據遊樂景觀之設計原則,森林景觀設計時必須考量滿足遊客身
心需要,所以除了滿足其遊樂、教育的心理需要外,對生理上的需要也要
提供餐飲、住宿、休息的場所,這些服務性建築應表現地方及林區特色(
時令、年代、人文特性),而園林配置又要和建物格局協調,使遊客獲得
整體滿意的遊樂體驗。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/65635
Appears in Collections:森林學系

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