Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/65658
標題: 私人經營林地使用與影響因素之研究--以南投縣內南港溪集水區為例
The Private Holding Forestland Use and Influential Factors: An Illustration of Nankang Watershed in Nantou County
作者: 羅凱安
Lo, Kai-An
關鍵字: Private Holding Forestland;私人經營林地;Efficiency;Multivariate Analysis;Sustainability;Geographic Information System;效率;多變量分析;永續性;地理資訊系統
出版社: 森林學系研究所
摘要: 
台灣林地由私人經營之面積約佔全部四分之一 (507,377 ha), 種類包括私有林、原
住民保留地中之宜林地,以及國有租地造林地,這些林地使用之良窳,直接間接影響農
林產品與環境效益甚巨。本文藉用地理資訊系統整合林地空間資料與問卷調查林主所獲
得之經營措施等屬性變數,應用多變量統計分析,對私人經營林地之使用類型、效率、
以及影響因素作一整合性之研究,提供未來擬定私有林業政策之參考。主要之分析方法
上,林地使用類型之分析方面,以因素分析和群團分析; 林地效率評定方面,以主成分
回歸及本研究依據永續性原則下,所定義之經濟與環境效率比率計?潀?在影響因素方
面,亦以因素分析及回歸、logit 回歸、判別分析等方法。在實證上以南投縣南港溪集
水區為樣區,就集水區內不同自然、社經條件之三鄉鎮,抽樣調查上述四種不同林地財
產權之私人經營林地使用現況加以比較分析,並探究其主要影響因素。
而經由本研究所獲得之主要結論如下:
1.所調查之私人經營林地使用型態上,有 57.8% 採行複合經營,故以地區來看,私人
經營林地之使用為一複雜的土地鑲嵌體。若以其經營投入產出因素加以分群,可分為
:大規模長期林木粗放經營型、小規模長期採筍複合經營型、新植園藝果樹竹筍多重
複合經營型、大規模果樹集約經營型、密集管理短期果樹作物經營型等 5 種。 其主
要受海拔、氣候、林地財產權、經營目的、勞力、交通、複合經營、坡度等因素所影
響。
2.目前有四分之一( 25.1% )林地採行混農林經營之方式, 主要以園藝型與竹筍型二
種居多,作物型最少。而主要影響因素:海拔、地價與財產權是負的影響;集約經營
目的、靠近主要道路等是正面的影響。
3.經由本研究所提出之效率衡量方法,在經濟效率方面,地區間,仁愛鄉>國姓鄉>埔
里鎮,地種間,保留地>解除地>租地造林>私有地>,林地經營型間,作物型>竹
筍型≒果樹型>林木型>園藝型,而主要的影響因素是:地價與財產權、經營目的、
以及林業勞力多寡;在環境效率方面,地區間,埔里鎮>國姓鄉>仁愛鄉>,地種間
,解除地≒租地造林>私有地≒保留地,林地經營型間,林木型≒園藝型>竹筍型>
果樹型>作物型,主要的影響因素有:林地特性、經營目的、以及林地勞力多寡。
4.藉由假設環境管制下林主對環境與目標之取捨結果得知,目前私林主對林地使用經濟
目標之權重均大於環境目標。 在地區之經濟目標權重上, 仁愛鄉為 0.73, 國姓鄉
0.64,埔里鎮 0.61; 在地種之經濟目標權重上,保留地 0.73,租地造林 0.70,解
除地 0.61,私有地 0.60;在林地經營類型上,竹筍型 0.71、作物型 0.70、果樹型
0.69,園藝型 0.62,林木型 0.56。而權重大小也指出了林主經營目標之多寡及環境
管制成效之大小。
5.林地、林主二層面的因素都對造林意願有所影響,影響目前是否造林之主要因素:集
約經營是負的影響;複合經營、造林儲蓄目的、林主的能力與機會等是正面的影響。
而影響是否接受造林補助之主要因素:造林環境保全目的、能力與機會是正面的影響
。而影響是否接受保留林木獎勵計畫之主要因素:地價與財產權是負的影響,複合經
營與造林保育環境目的則有正向的影響。
因此建議從擬定私人經營林地使用計畫、林地分區管制與良好財產權設計、林主輔導
、教育與資訊溝通、整合性林地資訊化管理、適度的混農林業經營、發展林業相容產業
等方面措施著手,導正私人林地之經營,促進林地合理使用。

There are 507,377 hectares (about 24.4 % of total cover) of forestland
held by private in Taiwan. The tenure of these forestlands includes private
ownership(PF), aboriginal reserve forestland(AF), released national
forestland(RF), leased national forestland(LF),. Although these forestland
are small scale and their holders almost are farms. These forestlands do
provide important sources of forest products and environmental benefits to
the Island. The purposes of this research are to find out current landus e
types, efficiency, and influential factors of these forestlands.
Therefore, this research applied geographic information system (GIS) to
integrate the spatial data of these forestlands and the management
attributes that acquired from the opinions of the private holders through
personal survey. The major methods for study purposes, the landuse type
analysis using factor analysis and cluster analysis; the efficiencies
measurement are conducted by economic and environmental cost saving function
which this research has proposed; the influential factors analysis using
ordinary regression, logit regression and discriminant analysis accordance
with the scale of explained variables that author wants to understand. An
illustration has demonstrated and explored these forestlands that locate in
the Nankang Watershed, which is divided by Pu-Li town(PL), Kuo-Hsing
village(KH), and Jen-Ai(JA) village.
There are several findings in our study are as follows:
1.There are 57.8% forestland have manage more one species jointly. That
creates landuse pattern look like complex mosaic in a zone just. In
according to the structures of input/output of landuse. It can be
classified five landuse types. There can be divided as long term extensive
tree type (A type), small-scale long term jointly bamboo type (B type),
recent more jointly horticulture species type(C type), orchard intensive
type (D type), and intensive short-term crop type (E type). The major
influential f ac tors of landuse types include elevation/climate, land
price/property right of forest, objectives of holder, amount of household
labor, feasibility of home to forestland, jointly management, and slope of
land.
2.About a quarter forestland adopted agroforestry of this survey. It mainly
composed of C and B landuse type. The major influential factors of holder
to adopt agroforestry include elevation/climate, land price/property right
of forest which are adverse, but intensive objectives of holder, close to
highway are positive.
3.According to efficiency measure methods that this research has proposed.
The comparison of economic efficiency, ZA > KH > PL among three
different socioeconomic zone; AF > RF > LF > PF among four different
property rights; E type > B type ≒ D type > A type > C type among five
landuse types. The major influential factors of economics efficiency
include land price/property right of forest, intensive objectives of
holder, and close to highway. However, The comparison of environmental
efficiency, PL > KH > ZA among t hr ee zones, RF ≒ LF > PF ≒ AF among
four kind property rights. A type > C type > B type > D type > E type
among five landuse types. The major influential factors of environmental
efficiency include characteristic of forestland, objectives of holder, and
amount of household labor.
4.Under assumed environmental control regulation. Based upon marginal
cost/benefit analysis. The private holder weight economic goal more than
environmental goal. The weight of economic goal of ZA is 0.73, KH is 0.64,
PL is 0.61; AF is 0.73, LF is 0.70, RF is 0.61, PF is 0.60; B type is
0.71, E type is 0.70, D type is 0.69, C type is 0.62, A type is 0.56.
These values not only point out the weight of holders'' goal but also show
the smaller value, the higher effectiveness of environmental control
regulati on .
5.The attributes of forestland and the characteristics of holder are two
important dimensions to three reforesting problems. 1) The major
influential factors of whether reforestation currently include the jointly
management, saving objective of reforestation, abilities and opportunities
of holder which are positive factors; but intensive objective of holder is
adverse factor. 2) The major influential factors of whether to accept the
government subsidy include the holder''s preserved objective of forestlan d
surroundings, abilities and opportunities of holder are positive factors.
3) The major influential factors of whether to accept award and joint the
tree preservation plan include land price/property of forest is adverse
factor; but joint management, the holder''s preserved objective of
forestland surroundings are positive factors.
Therefore, We proposed six suggestions for policy design to ensure
efficient forestland use. These suggestion can be described as followings:
1) The forestland use plan must be in accordance with the properties of
different zone; 2) Forestland zoning control must be enforced and property
rights of forest must be well-defined; 3) Develop compatible industries for
local forestry; 4) To strengthen extension, education and communication
programs in support of the private holder, 5) to integrate muti- infor ma
tion to monitor the forestland use, and 6) Introduce agroforestry in some
specific areas to improve forestland use.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/65658
Appears in Collections:森林學系

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