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標題: 建築廢木料與高密度聚乙烯殘料製造 平壓式木材粒片-塑膠複合材及其應用
Manufacturing and Applications of Wood Particle-Plastic Composites Made of Construction Wood-Wastes and High Density Polyethylene Residues by Flat-Platen Pressing
作者: 陳合進
Chen, Ho-Chin
關鍵字: Construction wood-wastes;建築廢木料;High density polyethylene;Flat-platen pressing;Wood partilce-plastic composite;Reclamation particle;高密度聚乙烯;平壓式;木材粒片-塑膠複合材;粒片資源化
出版社: 森林學系
以問卷調查的方法向公民營廢棄物清除機構收集有關廢木料的型態、產出及處理方式之資料,結果顯示建築廢木料已進行分類處理,木質廢料量平均約佔清運垃圾量的10 %,清運之木質廢料型態以廢棄家具最多,目前有85 %的業者將清運的木質廢料以「混合一般垃圾送往掩埋場或焚化廠」為處理方式。
經由加工應用性質、材料成本及複合材強度性質之評估,發現以尺寸大於16 mesh之粒片及塑膠含量30%之條件所製造的木材粒片-塑膠複合材,具有經濟性及實用性。檢測木材粒片-塑膠複合材的加工應用性質,結果顯示木材粒片-塑膠複合材有良好的膠合性,其浸水剝離率均符合CNS 11342複合木質地板之要求,然潛變變形量較相同厚度的粒片板大,在材料設計應用時應加以考慮。由板材的曝露試驗中,發現最初4 週強度性質降低了35~44%,然而最小的MOR仍可達84.6 kgf/cm2;而經4~20週的曝露試驗之試材,其強度並沒有明顯變化。
為開發適合大量生產製造平壓式木材粒片-塑膠複合材之設備,乃研究使用同機台熱冷壓交替之設備,以製造木材粒片-塑膠複合材,新設備之加熱升溫時間約10 min比舊設備(13 min)縮短約23%,而板材之冷卻降溫只需達100℃即可成板,將可提高生產速率及生產量,而不降低板材之性質;然而新設備之冷卻時間過長及冷卻後升溫時間過久之不利因素,有待再克服。
以木材粒片-塑膠複合材做為複合地板之基材,經實木單板貼面後製成木材粒片-塑膠複合材地板,而複合地板的寬度尺寸變化隨著貼面材料的不同而改變,與複合Ⅰ類木質地板有相同的趨勢,此複合材地板具有良好的尺寸安定性,施工時其伸縮縫的預留量宜為地板橫向寬度1.6~3.22 mm/m,約為實木地板的1/2;而木材粒片-塑膠複合材地板,之生產成本只比一般木質複合地板高出2.9%。是故,若能落實環保產品的採購規範,此種環保地板將有其發展性。

The study is to survey the recent yield and treatment of wood wastes, dispose the recycled construction wood wastes reclamation and test polluted degree of the reclamation particles. Then, to produce wood particle-plastic composites by flat pressing with the reclamation particles, and discuss all possible factors effecting the properties of wood particle-plastic composites. Finally, to process wood particle-plastic composites into indoor wood particle-plastic floors;test the properties of processing and applications according to test standard. All the results are as summarized follows:
Collection the types, yield and treatments of wood wastes by questionnaire, the result shows that construction wood wastes have already been sorted out; wood waste amount, which the most amount among them are furniture wastes, occupied the 10 ﹪of the total transported waste amount. Recently, 85 % proprietors deal with the transported wood waste by means of mixing with normal garbage and transporting to landfills or incinerators.
Analyzing the composition and polluted degree of construction wood wastes, we can find that solid wastes, occupied average 80 ﹪, were the greatest amount among all construction wood wastes;others were average 20 %. Pre-treating wood wastes into wood particles were average 57%, amount among all construction wood wastes.
Pre-treating wood waste into wood particles as materials to produce wood particle-plastic composites through flat pressing, and then examine the factors effecting properties of wood particle-plastic composites. Results show that when producing wood particle-plastic composites by this method, the content of wood particle could be up to 75﹪. Wood particle-plastic composites have excellent size durability and their strength rises as particle sizes increase. Besides, size durability rises as content of plastic increases. Wood particle-plastic composites have better panel properties with 5﹪ of the content of a stick agent.
After evaluating properties of process and application, material cost and strength properties of wood particle-plastic composites, it is evident that wood particle-plastic composites produced under particles larger than 16 mesh and 30﹪ content of plastic condition are economical and practical. In testing the process and application properties of wood particle-plastic composites, the results show wood particle-plastic composites have a nice bonding property. The peeling ratio of the immersion test conforms to CNS requirements of wooden floors. However, creep deflection of wood particle-plastic composites is larger than particleboard with the same thickness, which has to be considered in the material design. In the weather durability test, we find that strength decreases 35 ~ 40﹪ during the initial 4 weeks;the smallest MOR still could be 84.6 kgf/cm2, and strength without significant difference during 4 ~ 20 weeks.
In order to develop the proper equipment that can produce wood particle—plastic composites by flat pressing in large quantities, in this study we use alternate heating-cooling equipment to produce wood particle—plastic composites. Heating time of the equipment, average 10 min, is about 25﹪ shorter than the old process. The cooling temperature at which the panel could be formed is just about 100℃, and this would raise the production without decreasing the properties of the panels. Two disadvantages of the new equipment that need to be overcome are the overly long cooling time period and the overly long time when heating after cooling.
Wood particle-plastic composites overlaid veneer to produce wood particle-plastic floors, and their widths change with the difference of veneer types, which has the same tendency as a type Ι wooden floor. Wood particle-plastic floors have nice size durability; expansion joint should be 1.6 ~ 3.22 mm/m of floor width under construction, which is about 1/2 of solid floors. Production cost of wood particle-plastic floors is just 2.9﹪ higher than general wooden floors. Therefore, if we can implement the purchase of environmentally protected products, this kind of environmentally friendly floors will have solid potential for market growth in the future.
Appears in Collections:森林學系

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