Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/65928
標題: 竹焦油製備聚胺基甲酸酯塗料及發泡體之研究
Study on polyurethane coatings and foams made from bamboo tar
作者: 洪錦良
Hong, Jin-Liang
關鍵字: Bamboo tar;竹焦油;polyurethane;coating;foam;聚胺基甲酸酯;塗料;發泡體
出版社: 森林學系所
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摘要: 
本研究係以減壓蒸餾之方式將粗竹焦油(Crude bamboo tar)分餾為竹焦油(Bamboo tar)及竹醋液(Bamboo vinegar),並分析粗竹焦油、竹焦油及竹醋液之基本性質及組成分之變化;並將竹焦油作為多元醇化合物(Polyol)而合成聚胺基甲酸酯(Polyurethane, PU)塗料,探討不同竹焦油/蓖麻油重量比及多異氰酸酯種類對PU塗膜性質及耐腐朽性之影響;再進一步將粗竹焦油及竹醋液作為發泡劑與PMDI、PTDI及PHDI等三種不同多異氰酸酯製造PU發泡體,探討不同多異氰酸酯、發泡劑種類及添加量對PU發泡體性質及抑菌性影響。試驗結果得知,粗竹焦油羥價為35、酸價為153;竹焦油羥價為233、酸價為24;而竹醋液羥價為 0,酸價則為87。經GC-MS分析結果,粗竹焦油主要有機成分以酸性物質含量最多,其中又以醋酸成分為主;經由減壓蒸餾後,殘留之竹焦油主要成分中以2,6-二甲氧基酚含量最多,其次為酚;竹醋液之有機成分則以醋酸含量最多。將竹焦油應用於PU塗料製造時,在不同竹焦油/蓖麻油重量比方面,以60/40者具有優良之塗膜附著性、耐久性、耐光性及最大拉伸強度。而在不同多異氰酸酯方面,以 PMDI與竹焦油/蓖麻油重量比為60/40所製成之PU塗料,其塗膜硬度、拉伸強度及耐熱性質優良。在防腐性能方面,以竹焦油/蓖麻油重量比為60/40,分別與芳香族多異氰酸酯PTDI或PMDI所調配之PU塗料具有最佳之防腐性能。以粗竹焦油及竹醋液應用於PU發泡體製造時,發泡劑添加量愈多,則產生之孔胞愈大,但比重、壓縮強度及重量保留率均會下降;而以粗竹焦油添加量9%製造之PU發泡體,對抑制芽枝黴菌屬菌種具有最佳抑菌效果。

The aims of this study were to analyze the fundamental properties of crude bamboo tar, bamboo tar and bamboo vinegar. Both clear bamboo vinegar and bamboo tar obtained from crude bamboo tar distillation under reduced pressure. The bamboo tar was as polyol and the PU coatings were prepared with different bamboo tar/castor oil weight ratios and various polyisocyanates. The fundamental proportions and decay resistance of PU films were also examined. In preparation of polyurethane foams, the crude bamboo tar and bamboo vinegar were as blowing agent and the fundamental properties and antifungal index of PU foams with different polyisocyanates, blowing agents and dosage of blowing agent were conducted in this study. Results indicated that the crude bamboo tar had the hydroxyl value of 35 and the acid value of 153; the bamboo tar had the hydroxyl value of 233 and the acid value of 24; the bamboo vinegar had hydroxyl value of 0 and the acid value of 87. According to GC-MS analysis, of crude bamboo tar the acidic compounds were the main fraction, with acetic acid being the main one. The main components of bamboo tar were phenolic compounds, with 2, 6-dimethoxyl phenol being the main one and followed by phenol. The bamboo vinegar had higher concentration of acid components in which acetic acid was identified as the main one. To apply the bamboo tar using as PU coatings materials, the PU coatings with bamboo tar/castor oil weight ratio of 60/40 had the best adhesion, weatherability, lightfastness, and tensile strength. Among various polyisocyanates, the PU coatings containing PMDI showed excellent film properties such as hardness, tensile strength and thermalability. Moreover, PU coatings prepared with bamboo tar/castor oil weight ratio of 60/40 and polyisocyanates such as PTDI or PMDI, respectively, had an excellent decay resistance. The PU foams made from crude bamboo tar and bamboo vinegar as blowing agent showed that the size of cell increased as dosage of blowing agent increasing. However, the specific gravity, compression strength and weight retention decreased when the dosage of blowing agent increasing. The PU foam containing crude bamboo tar of dosage of 9% had the best antifungal index for Cladosporium sp..
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/65928
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