Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/65988
標題: 奮起湖地區居民對觀光發展態度之研究─社會交換理論之應用
The Attitudes of Fenqihu Residents to Tourism Development: An application of social exchange theory
作者: 林淑芬
Lin, Shu-Fen
關鍵字: evaluation of tourism impact;觀光衝擊評價;resident''s perception and attitude;social exchange theory;居民認知與態度;社會交換理論
出版社: 森林學系
摘要: 
隨著初級產業逐漸衰退,許多鄉村地區為了紓解經濟上的困境,尋求觀光作為替代的發展策略;然而觀光雖可為地方帶來經濟上的利益,但同時會造成環境和社會文化的負面衝擊。同一地區的居民感受到的衝擊可能不同,產生的態度也會有所差異;管理機關要維持遊客的滿意度及居民的支持,了解居民態度有其必要性,本研究之目的即在於應用社會交換理論探討居民對於觀光衝擊的認知及對於觀光發展的態度。
為深入瞭解居民的認知與態度如何形成,本研究採用半結構式的訪談方式進行調查,研究場域為位於國有林班地內的奮起湖地區,共訪問16位居民。經由資料分析獲得的主要結果如下:
一、影響奮起湖居民認知和態度的交換因子包括「依賴關係」、「吸引」、「價值觀」以及「互惠公平原則」。
二、擁有資源的居民具有較大的權力,且有較多的機會交換觀光利益,因此從事觀光相關工作的比例較高,亦受到觀光的吸引;不依賴觀光的居民多半未被吸引,且認為利益分配不符合互惠公平原則。部分居民強調生態資源保護的重要性,但價值觀的差異已造成居民間的衝突。
三、居民感受到觀光帶來正面的經濟利益,但對於環境與社會文化衝擊的認知多半是負面的。
四、「依賴觀光程度」較高及受到觀光「吸引」的居民除了對於正面衝擊評價普遍高於負面衝擊外,對於觀光發展也抱持較為贊同的態度;認為利益分配違反「互惠公平原則」以及重視生態的居民,感受到較多觀光的負面衝擊。
五、居民面對負面衝擊所表現的行為反應,包括欣然接受、容忍和適應三種類型,沒有出現較負面的反應。
六、多數居民贊同奮起湖未來繼續發展觀光,依其態度可以分成非常贊成觀光、贊成觀光、贊成觀光但有限度發展、中立的態度等四種類型。
七、現況資料顯示奮起湖目前處於TALC的參與和發展階段之間。
建議奮起湖應該擴大觀光利益的分配,實施承載量的管制,以及加強導覽解說的服務,以減低負面的衝擊與態度,使觀光永續發展。建議後續研究者藉由不同地區的實証研究以發掘更多交換因子,或者於同一地區進行縱向研究以監測居民認知與態度的變化,並檢驗交換因子的解釋力;此外自發性與政策性的觀光發展對於地方居民認知與態度是否會有不同影響,也值得探討。

Due to the decline of primary industries which community residents depend on, many rural communities search for tourism development as a strategy to leave behind economic difficulties. Tourism can bring economic benefits; however, the negative impacts on environmental, social and cultural aspects are also significant. In the same area, the residents' perception on those impacts would be different, and it makes differences in their attitudes and behavior reactions. Concern with attitudes of local people is necessary for the agency to maintain the tourists' satisfaction at tourism and residents' support for tourism. The purpose of this study is to apply social exchange theory to explore residents' perception on tourism impacts and their attitudes and behavior reactions to those impacts.
In order to understand deeply how do resident's perception and attitude form, semistandardized interview is applied in this study. Sixteen interviews were conducted among the residents of Fenqihu to collect data, and the findings demonstrate as follow:
1.The exchange factors of Fenqihu residents include “dependence relation”, “attraction”, “value”, and “reciprocity and justice principles”.
2.The resident with more resources will hold more power, and they have more opportunities to gain benefit from tourism and involve tourism industry. Those who don't depend upon tourism industry are not attracted by tourism, and most of them consider the distribution of benefit is unfair. Some residents emphasize the protection of ecological resources, but the different value had caused the conflict among some residents.
3.Tourism development has brought positive economic benefits to Fenqihu, but most impacts on environmental, social and cultural aspects are negative.
4.The resident who have higher “level of dependence on tourism” and who is attracted by tourism would evaluate whole impacts more positive, and also hold more favorable attitude on tourism. On the contrary, those who consider the distribution of benefit unfair and who emphasize ecological protection would perceive more negative impacts.
5.The behavior reactions of residents to negative impacts include embracement, tolerance and adjustment.
6.Most resident hold favorable attitudes toward continuing tourism development, and they could be classified into four types: very favorable to tourism, favorable to tourism, favorable to tourism but with limits, and neutral.
7.From the present situation, it shows that the TALC of Fenqihu is fitted between involvement and development phases.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/65988
Appears in Collections:森林學系

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